Ḳaṣīda EI [1]

Ḳaṣīda EI [1]

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
a īda 1. In Arabic . a īda collective a īd is the name given in Arabic to some poems of a certain length. It is derived from the root a ada , “to aim at”, for the primitive a īda was intended to eulogize the tribe of the poet and denigrate the opposing tribes. Later it was concerned with the eulogy of a personality or a family from whom the poet was soliciting help or subsidies. Although the funerary elegy ( mart ̲ h ̲ iya or rit ̲ h ̲ ā ʾ ) does not seem to have been included originally under the same designation, the form of the a īda may nevertheless be classified in this poetic genre. On the other hand, the poetic satire ( hid ̲ j ̲ ā ʾ ), which, furthermore, does not go beyond insult in verse, is often called a īda by the ancient poets, even though it does not present all the characteristics of the a īda . The classical a īda , represented ideally by the pre-Islamic or at least archaic poems [see mu alla ʿ āt ], collected and perhaps also given their form during the first centuries of Islam , has been defined by Ibn utayba in a famous passage many times translated and commented upon (see Gaudefroy- Demombynes, Introduction au Livre de la poésie et des poètes , Paris 1947, xvi-xviii, 13-15, 54-55), and then by the various literary critics who pronounced their judgments (particularly Ibn Ras ̲ h ̲ ī , see A. Trabulsi, La critique poétique des Arabes , Damascus 1955, passim ). It contains a series of successive developments whose conventional character implies a tradition already immemorial. The a īda , which numbers at least seven verses, but which generally comprises far more, consists essentially of three parts of variable length: (1) a prologue in which the poet sheds some tears over what was once the camping place of his beloved now far off ( bukā alā 'l-a ʾ ʿ lāl ), then describes the charms of the latter, which he forebears to pursue (the nasīb [see g ̲ h ̲ azal ]). (2) The poet's narration of his journey ( ra īl ) to the person to whom the poem is addressed. This part of the a īda is a pretext for descriptions of the desert and the hero's mount, as well as for lyrical flights of eloquence , for example on the insignificance of man. (3) As a general rule, this ra īl leads without any great transition into the central theme, constituted by the panegyric of a tribe, a protector or a patron, or in satire of their enemies. The Arabic a īda is a very conventional piece of verse, with one rhyme, whatever its length, and in a uniform metre. Consequently, the charm and originality of certain of the themes employed cannot prevent boredom and monotony from reigning over these never- ending poems. These formal constraints were moreover resented by the poets themselves; they are without doubt the cause of the fragmentary character of many of the pieces, which took a particularly long time to compose. Tradition reports numerous examples of
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 8

Ḳaṣīda EI [1]

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online