ES 173: 9/28/16 Midterm Section 1-5, preservation movement/Utilitarian conservation up to 20 th century Native American overview Indians o Colombus and his men thought they were in Asia when they landed on the Bahamas Siberian land bridge o There was dry land between Siberia (Beringia) and Alaska where people crossed and stayed in northern Alaska for many years o As the last big glacier melted the first place that opened up was in the Rocky Mountains and people began to move south o Routes of first Americans (23,000 – 8,000 BC) Down to earth (Steinberg) o Talks about population figures o Believes Beringia period is best on how people came to Americas o Might have been other migrations from other places Overkill hypothesis o Steinberg mentions in Down to Earth o Hunted mega fauna too fast and led them to become extinct o Advanced to quickly and killed too many of the animals Including Mammoth o Steinberg also says maybe it was just climate change o It was just a theory Extraterrestrials o Believed a comet flew over earth and broke up into 6 parts and hit North America and started a forest fire that lasted years and caused a temp. change and led the animals to go extinct Ecocide of native America o Air a lot of controversial issues about stereotypes on Native Americans o Were they really master ecologists like we like to stereotype them today? o Did chief seal’th (seattle) really make the speech as he was leading people out into the frontier which is where seattle is? o “Only to the white man was nature a wilderness full of savage people. To us the Earth is tame and beautiful…” exemplifies the ecological stereotype of native Americans Native Americans would burn the land, hunt off animal species, etc. Chief seal’th o Mentioned above Ecological stereotype
o Were the native American real ecological people or not? o This stereotype demeans Native peoples because they were known as helpless actors on the stage when the Europeans came in o Steinberg concludes that it is wrong that the Europeans came upon a wilderness because there were people actually inhabiting the land and manipulating it, not just a part of it Wilderness in America o Bias Europeans brought with them to the Americas Red, white, and black Diversity o The Americas were diverse o Some technologically advanced and manipulated land, others were nomadic people Territorial claims Spanish Catholics o Tried to convert the Native American cultures that they colonized to their religion and Spanish culture o Spanish were cruel and made Native Americans work for them in return the Spanish gave them protection English protestants o Broke off from catholic church o Wanted to show the world the right way to live with God o Did not want to convert Native Americans, just wanted the out of the way Western Christendom Roman Catholicism Protestantism Columbian exchange o
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- Gifford Pinchot, United States Forest Service