Psy1-2008_Methods - 2: Research Methods Psy 1, Spring 2008...

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1 ** Important Notice Concerning Lecture Material ** This file includes most, but not all, overhead material presented in lecture (e.g., some material may be altered or addedinlasminute changes) added in last-minute changes). The best use of this material is to print it out and take notes on them during lectures. Æ WARNING: Perfect knowledge of this material will not guarantee an A in the course. That is, important details will be presented in lecture but are not presented in this pdf file. Thus, it is very important that you attend lecture and discussion sections. 2.1) Research Designs: Ways to study behavior 2 2) Methodological Bias: Problems and pitfalls Section 2: Research Methods 1) Introduction & History Research Methods 2.1) Research Designs 2 2) Methodological Bias 2.2) Methodological Bias: Problems and pitfalls 2.3) Statistical Analysis: Ways to measure behavior 2.4) Neuroimaging Methods: Brain-behavior analyses 2.2) Methodological Bias 2.3) Statistical Analysis 2.4) Neuroimaging Methods 2.1: Research Designs 2. Methods Three Basic Ways to Study Behavior 2.1a) Descriptive Designs: Observational 2.1b) Correlational Designs: Comparative 2.1c) Experimental Designs: Manipulative 2: Research Methods Psy 1, Spring 2008
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2 2.1a: Descriptive Designs ¾ Piaget’s observations of kid Descriptive designs are observational Field Studies (natural settings) ± Careful observation of behavior Piagets observations of kids ¾ Ethological approaches (Lorenz) Imprinting King Solomon’s Ring” 2: Methods Descriptive designs are observational Field Studies (natural settings) ± Careful observation of behavior 2.1a: Descriptive Designs Laboratory Studies (control of settings) ± Case studies-- interviews, questioning, reports - Freud’s observation of Anna O. - Terr’s study of Chowchilla incident ± Surveys and Questionnaires (group analyses) 2: Methods - Describes data, public opinion and beliefs e.g., pre-screening packet ± As with all descriptive designs, there is little or no experimenter intervention 2: Research Methods Psy 1, Spring 2008
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3 2.1b: Correlational Designs Correlational designs compare two factors or measures …though there is no manipulation of factors. Examples Examples… TV watching vs aggression GPA vs study time learning ability vs brain size Scatterplot : Graph of each individual’sscores from two 2: Methods individual s scores from two factors Hypothetical data between brain size and learning(n=25) There appears to be a correlation between the two factors. r= .34 r= .04 Degrees of Correlations r= .86 r= .55 2: Methods Strength of correlations is measured by the r statistic (0= no correlation, 1.0= perfect correlation) 2: Research Methods Psy 1, Spring 2008
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4 Correlations can be negative: An increase in one factor related to decrease in the other.
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Psy1-2008_Methods - 2: Research Methods Psy 1, Spring 2008...

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