Homework_01_solution - BME 402 Homework 1 Due 11am A...

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BME 402 Homework 1 Due 11am, 1/17/06 A. History You should know the main steps (and missteps) along the path to the development of the modern view of brain function, including primary discoveries and/or contributions (and timeframe) of Galvani, Gall, Flourens, Cajal, Dubois-Reymond, Muller, Helmholtz, Bernard, Erlich, Langley, Hughlings Jackson, Fritsche, Hitzig, Broca, Wernicke, Brodmann, Adrian, Marshall, Bard, and Lashley. You should be able to list several experimental methods (e.g. cytoarchitectonic analysis, lesion studies, etc.) that have helped advance our understanding of brain function, with an example of how they have done so. Homework questions: 1. Which aspects of the theory of “phrenology” are actually correct, according to the modern view of brain organization? [2 pts] Gall came to the correct conclusion (based on an incorrect inference) that the brain is anatomically subdivided into a large number of functionally distinct areas. What was not valid was the method used to determine this, nor is there any evidence that the functions he identified, such as ideality, amitiveness, or secretiveness, are discretely mapped onto ay single brain area(s). 2. Define in one sentence: [ 3pts] a) Cytoarchitectonics: Brodmann found that cortical areas could be delineated by differences in cell size, density, layering patterns, myelin patterns, etc., that is, the architecture of the cellular matrix. b) Syncytium: Golgi, using his own stain, came to the conclusion that the brain was made
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