15 Tranzitor BJT cong suat - 1.5 Tranzitor l ìng cùc BJT...

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1.5. Tranzitor lìng cùc BJT công suất ( Bipolar Junction Tranzitor) 1. Nguyªn lÝ, cÊu t¹o. 2. §Æc ®iÓm cÊu t¹o tran. c«ng suÊt 3. Khãa tranzitor 4. Tranzitor b·o hoµ 5. §Æc tÝnh, th«ng sè 6. §Æc tÝnh ®ãng c¾t 7. Sơ đồ darlington
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1. Nguyªn lÝ cÊu t¹o BJT CÊu t¹o cña tranzitor cã d¹ng nh h×nh vÏ B C E B C E B E C B E C c) e) d) f) n n p Emit¬ Colect ¬ Baz¬ b) p p n Emit ¬ Colect ¬ Baz¬ a)
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Ho¹t ®éng §Ó m« t¶ ho¹t ®éng cña tranzitor, ta lÊy tranzitor l¹i pnp lµm vÝ dô. H×nh 1.12 Nguyªn lý ho¹t ®éng cña tranzitor p p Dßng h¹t ®a sè B Vïng nghÌo n C E p p Dßng h¹t thiÓu sè B Vïng nghÌo n C E p p Dßng h¹t thiÓu sè B I E n C E Dßng h¹t ®a sè I B I C a. c. b.
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Trªn h×nh 1.12a, khi tiÕp gi¸p colector kh«ng ®îc ph©n cùc, tiÕp gi¸p emitor ®îc ph©n cùc thuËn. §é réng vïng ®iÖn tÝch kh«ng gian gi÷a p vµ n (cßn gäi lµ vïng nghÌo) sÏ bÞ gi¶m, møc gi¶m tuú theo ®iÖn ¸p ph©n cùc, kÕt qu¶ lµ dßng cña c¸c h¹t ®a sè (c¸c lç trèng) khuÕch t¸n tõ miÒn b¸n dÉn p (cùc E) sang miÒn b¸n dÉn n (cùc B). Khi tiÕp gi¸p emitor kh«ng ®îc ph©n cùc, tiÕp gi¸p colector ph©n cùc ngîc, kh«ng cã dßng cña c¸c h¹t ®a sè (®iÖn tö ë b¸n dÉn n) chØ cã dßng cña c¸c h¹t thiÓu sè (lç trèng ë b¸n dÉn n) (h×nh 1.12 b).
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Trêng hîp tiÕp gi¸p emitor ph©n cùc thuËn, tiÕp gi¸p colector ph©n cùc ngîc (h×nh 1.12c). Khi tiÕp gi¸p emitor ph©n cùc thuËn, c¸c h¹t ®a sè khuÕch t¸n qua tiÕp gi¸p tíi miÒn baz¬ taä nªn dßng I E . T¹i miÒn baz¬ c¸c h¹t ®a sè nµy l¹i chuyÓn thµnh c¸c h¹t thiÓu sè, mét phÇn bÞ t¸i hîp víi c¸c ®iÖn tö t¹o thµnh dßng I B , phÇn cßn l¹i do ®é réng cña
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