22 Chinh luu - 2 2 Bé biÕn ®æi AC-DC ChØnh l u •...

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2. 2. Bé biÕn ®æi AC-DC - ChØnh lu Kh¸i qu¸t ChØnh lu mét pha ChØnh lu ba pha
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2.2.1. Kh¸i qu¸t chØnh lu CÊu tróc, ®Þnh nghÜa Ph©n lo¹i C¸c th«ng sè c¬ b¶n cña chØnh lu Nguyªn t¾c dÉn cña c¸c van b¸n dÉn
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1. CÊu tróc, ®Þnh nghÜa §Þnh nghÜa: ChØnh lu lµ thiÕt bÞ biÕn ®æi dßng ®iÖn (®iÖn ¸p) xoay chiÒu thµnh dßng ®iÖn mét chiÒu CÊu tróc chØnh lu nh h×nh vÏ BA CL Läc U 1 , P 1 U 2 , P 2 U = , P =
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2. Ph©n lo¹i Theo sè pha : mét pha, hai pha, ba pha, s¸u pha.. Theo lo¹i van : Toµn diod lµ chØnh lu kh«ng ®iÒu khiÓn Toµn tiristor lµ chØnh lu ®iÒu khiÓn Mét nöa chØnh lu, mét nöa diod lµ chØnh l u b¸n ®iÒu khiÓn (chØnh lu ®iÒu khiÓn kh«ng ®èi xøng) Ph©n lo¹i theo s¬ ®å m¾c Ph©n lo¹i theo c«ng suÊt
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3. C¸c th«ng sè c¬ b¶n cña chØnh lu Nh÷ng th«ng sè cã ý nghÜa quan trong ®Ó ®¸nh gi¸ chØnh lu bao gåm: §iÖn ¸p t¶i Dßng ®iÖn t¶i: I d = U dc /R d Dßng ®iÖn ch¹y qua van: I V = I d /m §iÖn ¸p ngîc cña van: U N = U max C«ng suÊt biÕn ¸p: Sè lÇn ®Ëp m¹ch trong mét chu k× = k U ~ T d d t d . t u T U 0 1 d d sd BA 2 BA 1 BA I . U . k 2 S S S
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4. Nguyªn t¾c dÉn cña c¸c van b¸n dÉn Nhãm van nèi chung catod Nguyªn t¾c diod dÉn: §iÖn ¸p anod van nµo d ¬ng h¬n diod Êy dÉn. Khi ®ã ®iÖn thÕ ®iÓm A b»ng ®iÖn thÕ anod d ¬ng nhÊt. Nguyªn t¾c dÉn vµ ®iÒu khiÓn tiristor D 2 D 1 D n V 2 V 1 V n + A T 2 T 1 T n V 2 V 1 V n + A
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Nhãm van nèi chung anod Nguyªn t¾c diod dÉn: §iÖn ¸p catod van nµo ©m h¬n diod Êy dÉn. Khi ®ã ®iÖn thÕ ®iÓm K b»ng ®iÖn thÕ anod ©m nhÊt. Nguyªn t¾c dÉn vµ ®iÒu khiÓn tiristor D 2 D 1 D n V 2 V 1 V n - K T 2 T 1 T n V 2 V 1 V n - K
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2.2.2. ChØnh lu mét pha ChØnh lu kh«ng ®iÒu khiÓn ChØnh lu cã ®iÒu khiÓn
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1. ChØnh lu kh«ng ®iÒu khiÓn a. ChØnh lu mét nöa chu k× S¬ ®å chØnh lu mét nöa chu k× kh«ng ®iÒu khiÓn trªn h×nh vÏ U 2 R L D U 1 U d I d t t 0 2
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XÐt trêng hîp t¶i thuÇn trë C¸c th«ng sè cña s¬ ®å §iÖn ¸p t¶i Dßng ®iÖn t¶i: I d = U dc /R d Dßng ®iÖn ch¹y qua diod: I D = I d §iÖn ¸p ngîc cña van: C«ng suÊt biÕn ¸p: 2 2 0 2 45 0 2 2 2 1 U , U t d . t sin U U d 2 2 U U N d d BA BA BA I . U . , S S S 09 3 2 2 1
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XÐt trêng hîp t¶i ®iÖn c¶m Do cã tÝch luü vµ x¶ n¨ng lîng cña cuén d©y, do ®ã dßng ®iÖn vµ ®iÖn ¸p cã d¹ng nh h×nh vÏ C¸c th«ng sè cña s¬ ®å §iÖn ¸p t¶i Dßng ®iÖn t¶i: I d = U dc /R d Dßng ®iÖn ch¹y qua diod: I D = I d §iÖn ¸p ngîc cña van:
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