MGMT 309 Exam 4 Review Sheet Chapter 14: Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations Understanding Individuals in Organizations o Psychological Contract – the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return starts at recruitment phase individual contribution – telling about self and what you can do for the organization; this includes effort, ability, loyalty, skills, time, and competencies organizational contribution – what the organization can do for you; this includes pay, job security, benefits, career opportunities, status, promotion opportunities o Person-Job fit (person-organization fit) - The extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organization Reasons for poor person-job fit: Imperfect organizational selection procedures Change in both people and organizations over time New technologies require new employee skills Unique individuals and unique jobs o Individual Differences – personal attributes that vary from one person to another whether they be physical, psychological, or emotional Personality and Individual Behavior o Personality – the relatively stable set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another o The “Big Five” Personality Traits (OCEAN or CANOE) Openness – person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests Conscientiousness – number of goals on which a person focuses Best predictor of success and what people are assessing the most Extraversion – a person’s comfort level with relationships Agreeableness – a person’s ability to get along with others Negative emotionality – the extent to which a person is calm, resilient, and secure o Clip: The Break Up; no sense of conscientiousness Myers-Briggs Framework o Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a popular questionnaire that some organizations use to assess personality types; it is useful for determining communication styles and interaction preferences o Personality is another form of diversity o Personality types: Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I) Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N) Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P) Other Personality Traits at Work
o Locus of Control – the extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them Internal locus of control – individuals who believe they are in control of their lives External locus of control – individuals who believe that external forces dictate what happen to them (fate, chance, luck) o Self-Efficacy –a person’s belief about his or her capabilities to perform a task High self-efficacy individuals believe they can perform while low self-efficacy individuals doubt their ability to perform o Authoritarianism – the extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social organizations o Machiavellianism
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- Spring '08