David McHugh Mr. Potter World Civ. II Honors March 11, 2004 Outline V - pp. 585-593 I. Post-Vienna shifts in government in Europe A. Parliament was divided into two political parties: Tories and Whigs. The Tories maintained dominance until some economic troubles and lower standards for living became evident towards 1830. B. The Council of Vienna reestablished the Bourbon monarchy in 1814 as Louis XVIII became the king. However, his successor, Charles X, got France primed for another revolution by failing to uphold ministerial responsibility. C. Ferdinand VII almost caused a revolution in Spain when he attempted to destroy the Cortes and the constitution, but the French prevented the revolutionary movement. D. The new German Confederation began to provide centralization and unification in Germany (the ideas partly led by Freidrich Ludwig Jahn), which set the stage for a strong military state and eventually World War I. E. Upon Alexander I’s death, secret societies (such as the Northern Union)
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