Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 KEY TERMS: 1. Cotton Mather Puritan...

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Chapter 4 KEY TERMS: 1. Cotton Mather – Puritan Minister who wanted to test an inoculation for smallpox and other epidemics in the colonies. He believed that epidemics were God’s punishment for sin (like other theologians), but also believed that inoculation was a divine gift, that people should combat disease. 2. Enlightenment – First in Europe and then spread to America. New philosophies such as naturalism and focuses of science and reason marked this movement. *** 3. Locke – English theorist who wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) and Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690) . Argues against the belief that infants are born with ideas implanted by God in their minds. Also argues that all men by natural law have the right to life, liberty, and property. 4. Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690) – published by Locke to “justify the Glorious Revolution”. Focuses on natural law, the rights of man, and the social compact that men enter into to secure those rights. He argues that if the state fails to do this, the people have the duty to rebel and establish a new social contract. 5. Natural Rights Philosophy – Belief that paved the way for an independent and Republican form of government, brought out clearly in Locke’s works claiming men’s rights to life, liberty, and property. 6. Harvard (1636) – founded by the Puritans, in New England, to preserve classical learning and civilization, to provide well-educated ministers for the future. 7. Yale (1701) – founded by the Puritans, in New England, to provide advanced education closer to home. Was unstable at first, but then gained stability after receiving funds from Elihu Yale. A center of religious and political battles in CT, as Whitefield, Tennant, Edwards, and Davenport all made speeches in New Haven. 8. William and Mary (1693) – founded in Virginia, only other college in the British colonies before the 1740s. 9. Royal Society of London – a large community of scholars, published the journal Philosophical Transactions , which contained the latest scientific ideas and knowledge. Its goal was to contribute to improving Natural knowledge and perfecting all Philosophical Arts and Sciences, all for the glory of God. 10. John Winthrop (of Harvard) – a descendant of John Winthrop the Massachusetts governor, part of the Royal Society of London, was taught at Harvard College. Published a number of papers, a renowned professor of natural philosophy, participated in calculating the distance (93 million miles) to the sun by observing the transit of Venus across the sun. 11. Benjamin Franklin – self-taught (never went to college), also part of the Royal Society of London, known for his experiments in electricity, wrote the Poor Richard’s Almanac. Invented bifocal eyeglasses, the lightening rod, and an iron stove. 12. Poor Richard’s Almanac – written by Ben Franklin, one of the sources of his
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This note was uploaded on 06/01/2008 for the course HIST 21 taught by Professor Spear during the Fall '07 term at Furman.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 KEY TERMS: 1. Cotton Mather Puritan...

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