01_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini 1) A)cytology B)histology C)embryology D)physiology E)anatomy Answer:A Diff:1

01_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini 1) A)cytology...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Multiple Choice Questions 1) The analysis of the internal structure of individual cells is called A) cytology. B) histology. C) embryology. D) physiology. E) anatomy. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) The study of the general form and superficial markings of an organism is called ________ anatomy. A) gross B) surface C) systemic D) regional E) surgical Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) The study of the superficial and internal features in a specific area of the body is called ________ anatomy. A) surface B) regional C) surgical D) pathological E) radiographic Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Anatomical features that change during illness are studied in ________ anatomy. A) gross B) surface C) microscopic D) pathological E) regional Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) The study of the liver is to gross anatomy as the study of the liver cell is to A) physiology. B) regional anatomy. C) cytology. D) systemic anatomy. E) radiographic anatomy. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) The study of the first two months of development is termed A) histology. B) embryology. C) cytology. D) pathology. E) organology. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) The study of the function of specific organ systems is called A) systemic physiology. B) organ physiology. C) cell physiology. D) pathological physiology. E) histology. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) Cardiovascular physiology is an example of A) histophysiology. B) organ physiology. C) systemic physiology. D) pathological physiology. E) physiological chemistry. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) Which of the following is arranged in correct order from the most COMPLEX to the SIMPLEST? A) cellular, tissue, molecular, system, organ, organism B) molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism C) tissue, cellular, molecular, organ, system, organism D) organ, organism, molecular, cellular, tissue, system E) organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation? A) integumentary B) muscular C) skeletal D) nervous E) endocrine Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) Which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic wastes, gases, and defense cells? A) cardiovascular B) digestive C) muscular D) respiratory E) urinary Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) Which organ system includes the spleen and the tonsils? A) digestive B) endocrine C) nervous D) cardiovascular E) lymphatic Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) The kidneys and ureters are organs of the ________ system. A) endocrine B) digestive C) respiratory D) urinary E) lymphatic Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) The pituitary gland and thyroid gland are organs of the ________ system. A) endocrine B) cardiovascular C) respiratory D) lymphatic E) digestive Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream? A) cardiovascular B) lymphatic C) respiratory D) digestive E) endocrine Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) Lungs are to the respiratory system as the liver is to the ________ system. A) lymphatic B) urinary C) digestive D) cardiovascular E) both B and D Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) Skin, hair, and nails are associated with the ________ system. A) skeletal B) muscular C) integumentary D) endocrine E) both A and B Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) The maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism is termed A) positive feedback. B) homeostasis. C) negative feedback. D) effector control. E) integration. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of A) negative feedback. B) positive feedback. C) nonhomeostatic regulation. D) diagnostic regulation. E) fever. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) In general, the nervous system does each of the following, except A) helps to maintain homeostasis. B) responds rapidly to change. C) directs long-term responses to change. D) directs very specific responses. E) both B and D Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) Which one of the following is not a characteristic of the endocrine system? A) releases chemical messengers called hormones B) produces a more rapid response than the nervous system C) produces effects that last for days or longer D) produces an effect that involves several organs or tissues at the same time E) important homeostatic system Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) A person facing forward with hands at the sides and palms facing forward is in the A) supine position. B) prone position. C) anatomical position. D) frontal position. E) sagittal position. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) An anatomical term that means the same as ventral: A) posterior B) inferior C) abdominal D) anterior E) superior Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) The heart is ________ to the lungs. A) lateral B) medial C) posterior D) proximal E) distal Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) The wrist is ________ to the elbow. A) proximal B) distal C) lateral D) medial E) horizontal Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) The chin is ________ to the nose. A) anterior B) superior C) posterior D) inferior E) medial Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Which of the following regions corresponds to the buttocks? A) pelvic B) cephalic C) gluteal D) lumbar E) thoracic Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) Which of the following terms refers to the foot? A) cervical B) brachial C) antebrachial D) femoral E) pedal Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) Which plane divides the body into right and left parts? A) proximal B) frontal C) orthogonal D) transverse E) sagittal Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) The muscle known as the diaphragm separates the ________ from the ________. A) pleural cavity; mediastinum B) thoracic cavity; abdominopelvic cavity C) pericardial cavity; pleural cavity D) abdominal cavity; pelvic cavity E) pericardial sac; pericardial cavity Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) The thoracic cavity contains the A) coelom. B) pericardial cavity. C) pelvic cavity. D) pleural cavities. E) both B and D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) A midsagittal section would pass through the A) kidney. B) lung. C) heart. D) spleen. E) leg. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 33) The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the A) pericardium. B) peritoneum. C) pleura. D) mediastinum. E) abdomen. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) Mary, who is 6 months pregnant, goes to her physician for a test to check the development of her fetus. The physician uses a device that emits sound waves to produce an image of the fetus. This technique is known as A) X-ray. B) CT. C) MRI. D) ultrasound. E) radiography. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) An imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce views inside the body is the A) angiogram. B) radiograph. C) CT scan. D) MRI scan. E) ultrasound. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) If a response decreases a disturbance, the system is classified as a ________ feedback system. A) deficit B) negative C) neutral D) polarized E) positive Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 37) If a response increases a disturbance, the system is classified as a ________ feedback system. A) deficit B) negative C) neutral D) polarized E) positive Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 38) Which of the following organs is located between the peritoneum and the body wall? A) stomach B) kidney C) urinary bladder D) large intestine E) spleen Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) Anatomy is to ________ as physiology is to ________. A) function; form B) form; structure C) structure; function D) structure; form E) growth; form Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 40) The central principle of physiology is A) nutrition. B) reflexes. C) homeostasis. D) stimulation. E) temperature regulation. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 41) An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature would be A) temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus. B) sweat glands that increase secretion. C) regulatory centers that send commands to an effector. D) effectors that cause blood vessels to dilate. E) sweat glands that act like effectors. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 42) The integrating center for the negative feedback loop that regulates body temperature is the A) hypothalamus. B) skin. C) temperature sensor. D) positive feedback center. E) thermostat. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) A cell or organ that responds to commands of the control center in negative feedback is termed a(n) A) receptor. B) thermoregulator. C) hypothalamus. D) effector. E) stimulus. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) This type of feedback exaggerates the effects of variations from normal. A) negative B) positive C) neutral D) depressing E) all of the above Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) Organ physiology is to ________ as gross anatomy is to ________. A) cell physiology; microscopic anatomy B) macroscopic anatomy; unbalance C) equilibrium; macroscopic anatomy D) balance; equilibrium E) imbalance; microscopic anatomy Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 46) The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all of the following except A) right upper quadrant (RUQ). B) right lower quadrant (RLQ). C) left upper quadrant (LUQ). D) left lower quadrant (LLQ). E) pelvic quadrant. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) Which of the following is not considered an abdominopelvic region? A) right hypochondriac B) right inguinal region C) left lumbar D) left hypochondriac E) upper Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) Identify a structure located within the mediastinum. A) pericardial sac B) small intestine C) lung D) spleen E) stomach Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 49) A person is lying on the bed gazing at the ceiling. She is in the ________ position. A) prone B) supine C) anatomical D) dorsal E) caudal Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 50) The right pleural cavity contains the A) heart. B) trachea. C) left lung. D) right lung. E) both lungs. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) Which of the following organs is not contained within the abdominal cavity? A) stomach B) small intestine C) ovary D) spleen E) pancreas Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) Visceral pericardium is located A) on the heart itself. B) lining the pleural cavity. C) lining the pericardial cavity. D) on the lung itself. E) lining the peritoneal cavity. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 53) The mediastinum A) contains the pleural cavities. B) separates the pleural cavities. C) contains the pericardial cavity. D) both A and C E) both B and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) ________ is considered the oldest medical science. A) Anatomy B) Biology C) Physiology D) Cytology E) Embryology Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Identify the correctly spelled term describing the organ that separates the ventral body cavity into superior and inferior cavities. A) mediastinum B) mediastienum C) diaphragm D) diafragm E) diaphram Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 56) Terms of anatomical direction are used to describe A) one body part in relation to another. B) surgical procedures. C) a supine position. D) the nervous system. E) living matter. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 57) The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the A) pelvic and thoracic. B) cranial and sacral. C) lateral and medial. D) thoracic and abdominopelvic. E) dorsal and ventral. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 58) The urinary bladder is found in the ________ quadrant and the ________ quadrant. A) right upper; right lower B) left upper; left lower C) right upper; right lower D) left upper; right upper E) right lower; left lower Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) The liver is primarily located in the ________ quadrant. A) right upper B) left upper C) right lower D) left lower E) hepatic Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) While standing erect, the direction of caudal is A) upward. B) downward. C) laterally. D) medially. E) none of these. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 61) While standing in the anatomical position, A) front refers to anterior. B) front refers to ventral. C) back refers to posterior. D) back refers to dorsal. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 62) A chemical imbalance in the blood can cause the heart to stop pumping blood, which in turn will cause other tissues and organs to cease functioning. This observation supports the view that A) all organisms are composed of cells. B) all levels of organization within an organism are interdependent. C) chemical molecules make up cells. D) blood has magical properties. E) congenital defects can be life-threatening. Answer: B Diff: 3 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts Short Answer Questions 1) The branch of biological science that studies the external and internal structure of the body and the physical relationship among body parts is called ________. Answer: anatomy Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) The branch of biological science that deals with the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions is called ________. Answer: physiology Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) The tendency for physiological systems to stabilize internal conditions is called ________. Answer: homeostasis Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Homeostatic regulation usually involves a(n) ________ that detects a particular stimulus, and a(n) ________ that responds to the stimulus by communicating with a(n) ________ whose activity has an effect on the same stimulus. Answer: receptor; integrating center; effector Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 5) ________ regulation occurs when the activities of organs are regulated locally. Answer: Intrinsic Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 6) ________ regulation results from the activities of the nervous or endocrine system. Answer: Extrinsic Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Anatomy uses a special language, called ________, that involves the use of word roots, prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms to construct terms related to the body in health and disease. Answer: medical terminology Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) When homeostatic mechanisms fail, an individual will experience the symptoms of ________. Answer: disease Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) A person lying face down is in the ________ position. Answer: prone Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) The ________ serves as a worldwide official standard of anatomical vocabulary. Answer: Terminologia Anatomica Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) A cut parallel to the midsagittal plane would produce a(n) ________ section. Answer: parasagittal Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) ________ studies the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity. Answer: Developmental anatomy Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) The common term for the buccal region is the ________. Answer: cheek Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) The common term for the carpal region is the ________. Answer: wrist Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) The common name for the pollex is the ________. Answer: thumb Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) The common name for the patella is the ________. Answer: kneecap Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms Essay Questions 1) Name the organs found in the thoracic cavity. Answer: lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, major blood vessels connected to the heart Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Name the two upper abdominal quadrants and list the organs that lie in each. Answer: right upper quadrant (RUQ): right lobe of liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of stomach, large and small intestines; left upper quadrant (LUQ): left lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of large intestine Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 3) What is homeostatic regulation, and what is its physiological importance? Answer: Homeostatic regulation refers to adjustments in physiological systems that are responsible for the preservation of a constant internal environment. This provides a favorable environment for the bodyʹs cells. Diff: 3 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 4) During exercise, blood flow to skeletal muscles increases. The initial response that increases blood flow is automatic and independent of the nervous and endocrine systems. Which type of homeostatic regulation is this? Why? Answer: The initial increase in blood flow to active muscles is an example of autoregulation. For example, when oxygen levels decline in a tissue, the cells release chemicals that dilate local blood vessels. This dilation increases the rate of blood flow and provides more oxygen to the region even before responses from the nervous or endocrine system take place. Autoregulation does not require the nervous or endocrine system. Diff: 3 Skill: Level 3 Questions: Critical Thinking & Clinical Applications ...
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