Neuroscience study guide Exam 1

Neuroscience study guide Exam 1 - Neuroscience study guide...

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Neuroscience study guide Exam 1 The brain is composed of individual cells called: - Neurons - Glia Neurons - Receive information and transmit it to other cells - Vary in size, shape and function - Human brain contains 100 billion neurons Charles Sherrington - One of the main founders of neuroscience Santiago Ramon y Cajal - Another main founder of neuroscience - Used Camillo Golgi’s method of staining nerve cells on infant brains, and demonstrated that nerve cells remain separate instead of merging into one another. Structures of Animal Cells - Membrane (plasma membrane) : edge of cell; separates inside of cell from outside environment o Composed of two layers of fat molecules o Most chemicals cannot cross the membrane o Protein channels in the membrane allow a few charged ions (sodium [Na], potassium [k], calcium, and chloride) to cross o Some uncharged chemicals (water, oxygen, co2, urea) can diffuse across membrane. - Nucleus : contains chromosomes - Mitochondrion : performs metabolic activities; provides the energy that the cell requires for all its other activities o Require fuel and oxygen to function - Ribosomes : sites where the cell synthesizes new protein molecules o Provide building materials for the cell and facilitates various chemical reactions o Some float freely, others are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum - Endoplasmic reticulum: network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations Structure of a Neuron - Contains a nucleus, membrane, mitochondria, and ribosomes - Dendrites, a soma (cell body), axon, and presynaptic terminals - Motor neuron: o Has it’s soma in the spinal cord.
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Neuroscience study guide Exam 1 - Neuroscience study guide...

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