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Unformatted text preview: [Type text] I ntroduction This lab was performed to investigate how the kidneys function to maintain whole-body homeostasis. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a persons fist. They are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage. As small as they may seem, they are one of the most important organs in our body involved in whole-body homeostasis. They maintain homeostasis by filtering and secreting waste products (such as urea, creatinine, and ketone bodies) from the blood, and expelling them along with water, as urine. Other homeostatic functions of the kidneys include acid-base balance, blood volume control, and regulation of electrolyte concentration and blood pressure. [Type text] When blood enters the kidneys through the renal artery, it is essentially cleaned by tiny filters called nephrons, which are the basic functional units of the kidney controlling the formation of urine. In brief, the nephrons remove wastes from the blood and expel them in the urine. The kidneys also reabsorb molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and bicarbonate which are necessary for normal body function. When glucose concentration is within normal limits (70-110 mg per 100 ml), all the glucose is able to be transported back into the blood; however, when glucose levels are too high in the renal plasma, glucose will end up in the urine, and glycosuria will develop as a result of diseases that raise the blood sugar level (i.e. diabetes mellitus). There are other complications that result when certain molecules are not reabsorbed, glycosuria is just one example....
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