4. Individual Differences_Spring - Individual Differences I...

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Individual Differences I 2/1/2016 Reading: Modules 3.1-3.2 1
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2 Intro to individual differences Individual differences Dissimilarities between or among two or more people Relatively stable or enduring dispositions or traits
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KSAOs K nowledge S kills A bility Cognitive Ability Physical Ability O ther Characteristics Personality Vocational Interests Emotional Intelligence Others (e.g., values, integrity, virtues…) 3
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KSAOs K nowledge S kills A bility Cognitive Ability Physical Ability O ther Characteristics Personality Vocational Interests Emotional Intelligence Others (e.g., values, integrity, virtues…) 4
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Cognitive Ability Reading: Module 3.2 5
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Outline What is Cognitive Ability Definition History of cognitive ability research Carroll’s three -stratum theory Why I/O Psychologists Care about Cognitive Ability 6
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7 What is cognitive ability? Variously referred to as intelligence, cognitive ability, and general mental ability (GMA). Humphreys (1984) “An individual’s entire repertoire of acquired skills, knowledge, learning sets, and generalization tendencies considered intellectual in nature that [is] available at any one period of time.”
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Chuck Hulin’s Dictum “You can’t measure innate intelligence any more than you can measure the innate height of a stalk of corn” 8
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What is cognitive ability? How can we tell that a person has high cognitive ability (a.k.a., smart)? Let’s watch an example https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRHn59g6Kow (2:39) 9
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10 History of cognitive ability Sir Francis Galton (1884): believed that sensory acuity was a reflection of cognitive ability and studied the heritability of intelligence Because information about the world could only be gained through the senses, Galton measured visual and auditory acuity as intelligence. James McKeen Cattell (1891): believed that intelligence was reflected in reaction times Measured intelligence by assessing ability to distinguish between weights, accuracy in judging ten second intervals, reaction time, and more.
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11 History of cognitive ability Binet (1896): first to attempt to directly measure the complex mental operations as intelligence Proposed that mental abilities should be studied directly rather than indirectly through sensory acuity Developed one of the first tests that directly measured cognitive ability through the assessment of complex mental processes, the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Where the idea of an intelligence quotient or IQ came from
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Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test 12 Now in its Fifth Edition Used to diagnose developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children
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Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test 13
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14 History of cognitive ability Spearman (1904): proposed that there was a general intelligence factor that he termed ‘ g This factor encompasses knowledge about a broad range of topics (e.g. verbal ability, quantitative ability, etc.) He also proposed that there were very specific intelligence factors
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