3. Research Methods_Spring - Research Methods I Reading...

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Research Methods I 1/25/2016 Reading: Modules 2.1-2.2 1
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Overview Why do I/O psychologists do scientific research? Constructs, variables, and relationship Research Designs Data Analysis Reliability and Validity 2
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Why do I/O psychologists do scientific research? Common sense is often wrong E.g., Does money make our jobs more enjoyable? Not necessarily -- the association between salary and job satisfaction is very weak (Judge et al., 2010) There can be legal consequences for not doing scientific research E.g., in lawsuits on hiring fairness, I/O psychologists often testify as expert witnesses Opinions might be challenged by opposing lawyers as “junk science” if lacking scientific research 3
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How is I/O psychology research different from “hard s ciences”? Human beings are so unpredictable we need to deal with randomness I/O psychology research is less deterministic Features of I/O psychology research Heavily rely on data We are NOT “armchair psychologists” Conclusions are always based on probabilities E.g., people who set career goals are more likely to succeed Conclusions are context-dependent E.g., people with high I.Q. scores are more likely to perform well when the job tasks are complex 4
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How to conduct scientific research? 5 Research Question Hypothesis Data Collection Statistical Analysis Conclusion
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How to conduct scientific research? All start with a research question… E.g., Are happy workers productive workers? 6
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Constructs and Measures How do we define happy workers ? How do we define productive workers ? 7
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Constructs and Measures 8 Construct Psychological concept or characteristic that we are trying to examine ( intangible ; e.g., intelligence) Operationalize Measure Or “ indicator variable ”. An operationalization of a psychological concept that can vary ( tangible ; e.g., SAT scores)
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Relationship: IV and DV We are interested in the relationship between two constructs; but we can only test the relationship between two indicator variables. 9 Intelligence Job Performance SAT Scores # of light bulbs made Independent Variable (IV) “the cause” Dependent Variable (DV) “the effect”
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Relationship: Mediators and Moderators We are interested in more complicated relationship than IV DV Mediators : the intermediate link (i.e., mechanism ) in a causal chain Moderators : the boundary condition of a causal chain E.g., intelligence predicts dating success 10 Dating Success Intelligence Appreciation of intelligence Intelligence Interesting things to say Dating Success Mediation Moderation
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Relationship: Mediators and Moderators What are the possible mediators and moderators for the relationship between intelligence and job performance ?
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