KeenFinalF04

KeenFinalF04 - Name:_ ID.# Biological Sciences 18 Fall 2004...

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Unformatted text preview: Name:_ ID.# Biological Sciences 18 Fall 2004 — KEEN Final Examination Please Read the Instructions First. Check your pages—-there are 15 pages in this exam. You are responsible for making sure that you have all the pages. This examination is worth 130 points. Please bubble in the last 6 digits of your student id. number on your scantron. There will be 4 blank spaces to the right of the id. number. Bubble the number from the bottom of the scantron into the scantron number box. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Indicate your answers on the scantron using a number 2 or a test scoring pencil. Press heavily, don’t stray out of the margins and completely erase any changed answers. 2. If you think that a question is ambiguous or confusing, use the "explanation sheet” at the end of the examination to explain the problem. 3. There are 45 multiple choice questions worth 2 points each. 4. There are 3 optional bonus questions worth 2 points each. Fill—in Questions 1. Use pen only. (no grade corrections for pencil). No white-out allowed. I 2. Write only one answer per question-~you can elaborate on an answer, but you will not be given any credit if you write two different answers to the question. 3. Spelling rules: 1 point off of 2-3 letters wrong or transposed. No points will be given if the misspelling alters the meaning of the word. 4. There are 4 fill—in questions worth 40 points in total. Choose the one best answer: 1. Tagmata are distinct body regions assumed to have formed via fusion of groups of segments. Three tagmata are clearly visible in: a) insects b) pillbugs c) spiders d) centipedes e) all of the above animals 2. Mosquitos are holometabolous insects. What does this tell you? a) juvenile mosquitos look similar to adults b) mosquitos don't molt c) mosquito larva must metamorphose into adults d) adult and juvenile mosquitos feed in the same way e) adult and juvenile mosquitos live in the same habitat 3. Echinoderms are dioeciOus. How do egg and sperm meet? a) in the cocoon b) in seawater after free—spawning c) internal fertilization occurs d) self-fertilization occurs inside the body e) pedipalps are used to insert sperm into the female body 4. Some sea stars (Class Asteroidea) live on sand. Which features would you not expect to see in these animals? a) a water vascular system b) a madreporite c) ossicles in the skin (1) tube feet with suckers e) free-swimming larvae 5. Which features of the larvaceans and cephalochordates make biologists think they evolved via paedomorphosis? a) the adult body of these animals resembles the ancestral adult b) the juvenile body of these animals resembles the ancestral adult host C) the adult body of these animals resembles the ancestral juveniles d) the juvenile body of these animals is just like the ancestral juvenile e) both adult animals are the same size as tunicate tadpole larvae 6. In which of the following animals are all four defining chordate characters present in the adult stage of the animal? a) tunicates b) hagfish c) dogs d) b and c e) a, b and c 7. Sea urchin eggs are considered a delicacy by many people. If you wanted to start farming sea urchins in a bay along the coast of California, what aspect of the life cycle would be the most difficult to control? a) keeping the adults in the bay b) collecting eggs or sperm in the lab c) successfully fertilizing the eggs d) getting cleavage to start I e) keeping track of the larvae in the bay 8. The vertebrate lung is homologous to: a) the vascularized mantle cavity of land snails b) the fish swim bladder c) the gills of fishes d) the earthworm cocoon e) book lungs in chelicerates 9. Most marine invertebrates do not osmoregulate because: a) their internal osmotic concentration is very close to that of seawater b) their internal osmotic concentration is very close to zero c) their internal osmotic concentration stays between 250 and 330 mOsm d) they add TMAO to the blood at all times e) they get many ions from eating salty foods 10. Why does a marine fish drink saltwater? a) to take in more ions b) to take in more water c) to raise its internal osmotic concentration d) to get calcium for its scales e) to supplement the cells in the gills that add ions to the body 11. In a population of 2000 lancelets at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the genotype frequencies are f(GG) : 0.81, f(Gg) = 0. 18, and f(gg) = 0.01. The frequency of allele G is: a) 0.10 b) 0.18 c) 0.36 d) 0.88 e) 0.90 USE THE CLADOGRAM BELOW TO ANSWER QUESTIONS 12 TO 18 N \ 0' C; 9?} ‘90“ ._ f“ ax“ .C 0 ’b ‘0 g K‘ 6° 53 E w .— 3 N o (D N x 'D '5 >‘ U’ U) m m ‘5 a f, 0 n) c w “L In —C _;>_-_‘ >‘ w c '3 U N U H 7.5.92 ca u) L o T;1 T. .c 5.13“, = a _ .._. -— U) '0 2 m c 5 E 2 252-0 0 E 0-: '§ ‘1 o a) mat“- U m E e m U .C In g) :N L .5 (U 30 E 0 O o<I-:, o m z 9 9 9 63 9 6 G a E V) we ® 0 En (DO “Go on! 0_ “Q. L p m 0 12. Within which lineage has progenesis resulted in the evolution of larvaceans? a) lineage 1 b) lineage 2 C) lineage 3 d) lineage 4 e) lineage 5 13. The lineage of jawed fish without modern descendants is: a) lineage 3 b) lineage 4 c) lineage 5 d) lineage 6 e) lineage 7 14. Which lineages contain tetrapods? a) lineages 6 to 10 inclusive b) lineages 8 to 10 inclusive c) lineages 9 to 15 inclusive d) lineages 10 to 15 inclusive e) lineages 11 to 15 inclusive 15. The taxon whose scientifc name can be translated into "head—bullet—form" is a) lineage 2 b) lineage 3 c) lineage 4 d) lineage 7 e) lineage 8 16. An internal osmotic concentration greater than or equal to 1000 mOsm can be found in modern members of which lineages? a) lineages 1 to 4 b) lineages 1 to 7 c) lineages 1 to 9 d) lineages 8 to 14 e) lineages 10 to 15 17. The evolution of turtles is of great interest to modern biologists. Assume the given cladogram represents the true path of evolution. If turtles were removed from the Class Reptilia and placed in a class of their own, the Class Reptilia would be: a) monophyletic b) paraphyletic c) polyphyletic d) pleiotropic e) polymorphic 18. Ostracoderms are extinct fshes, but they are worth discussing because some of their features help us develop ideas about the evolution of: a) gill pOuches b) gill slits c) jaws d) lungs e) tetrapod limbs 19. The arthropod subphylum where book lungs and book gills are present is: a) Crustacea b) Hexapoda c) Trilobita d) Chelicerata e) Myriapoda 20. In Australian jewel beetles, natural and sexual selection seem to favor large females because: a) they are better at fighting b) they are better at holding onto a territory c) they are easier for males to find d) they can produce more offspring than smaller females e) they prevent predators from eating their young 21. What factors typically give an advantage to large males during reproduction? a) increased ability to monopolize resources needed by females b) increased ability to compete with other males directly for access to females c) increased production of gametes d) factors a and b e) factors a, b, and c 22. In poison arrow frogs, female reproduction is limited by access to a male for raising the eggs. Females produce more eggs than a male can raise. In this case, what selection pressures favor large body size for females? a) increased parental care for the young b) increased ability to compete with other females for access to males c) increased production of gametes d) factors a and b e) factors a, b, and c 23. Most polychaetes are motile. The heads and bodies of most polychaetes exhibit bilateral symmetry. The heads of some tube-dwelling polychaetes look radially symmetrical. Why might such animals have been favored by selection? a) because they are motile as larva b) because they are motile as adults c) because they are sessile as larvae d) because they are sessile as adults e) because they interbreed with tube-dwelling anemones 24. More people want to buy puppies than want to buy dogs. People prefer the relatively large heads, small bodies, and playful affectionate natures of puppies to the shapes and behaviors of adult dogs. If dog breeders want to create a new breed of dog to match this preference, what kind of heterochronic change are they looking for? a) paedomorphosis b) progenesis c) neoteny d) a and b e) a and c 25. All sea urchins found in California have rigid skeletons with tightly associated ossicles (plates) in the skin. However, there some tropical sea urchins where the plates are very loosely connected and the bodies are floppy. Given this fact, which other echinoderm class might be the sister taxon to the Echinoidea? a) Asteroidea b) Crinoidea c) Holothuroidea d) Ophiuroidea e) Asteroidea plus Ophiuroidea 26. The short term abundance of nutrients in coastal seawater sometimes results in a "bloom" of dinoflagellates called a "Red Tide.’ During this period of time, one should; a) not swim in seawater b) expect to see a lot of dead bivalves c) expect to see a lot of dead crabs d) avoid eating bivalves from this area e) avoid eating crabs from this area 27. Modern tetrapods are assumed to share a more recent common ancestor with lobe- finned fishes than with ray-finned fishes. What makes biologists think this? a) only tetrapods and lobe-finned fishes have a low osmotic concentration b) these are the only two amniote lineages c) lobe—finned fishes raise their young in pouches just like marsupials d) the bone patttern of lobed fins is similar to the bone pattern in a tetrapod limb e) all of the above are useful for this argument 28. Some sponges have more efficient bodies than others. What aspects of the design result in increased surface area for food capture? a) they flatten out into a ribbon-like body b) they fold the gut back and forth c) they add a typhlosole to the gut d) they divide the gut into many tiny branches e) they fold the area with collar cells into canals or chambers 29. Many people think that the Portuguese Man O War is a jellyfish, but true jellyfish are scyphozoan medusae. What is a better definition of this animal? a) a swimming hydrozoan medusa b) a floating hydrozoan colony c) a hydrozoan colony with medusoid bells that pulse d) a swimming tunicate colony e) a solitary anthozoan 30. On a visit to your family, someone asks for one piece of evidence that mammals shared an ancestor with reptiles. What would be a good reply? a) there are a few reptiles that nourish young with a placenta b) there are a few mammals'that lay eggs like reptiles c) there are a few reptiles that produce milk for their young d) most reptiles give birth to live young e) there are a few mammals with scales just like reptiles 31. In class this quarter we discussed the evolution of a new species of grass, one that could tolerate heavy metals, from an ancestral grass species that lived in meadows. If the two grass species now differ in terms of the season at which they produce flowers, how are they reproductively isolated? a) by mechanical isolation b) by temporal isolation c) by spatial isolation d) by ecological isolation e) by hybrid breakdown 32. Continue thinking about the grasses from question #32. Grasses are wind— pollinated, so when the heavy metal-tolerant members of the meadow grass population first colonized the soil with heavy metals in it, these plants probably received pollen from the meadow plants. Which mechanism below could result in some separation of the two populations (meadow and metal—tolerant) with wind-pollination? a) mechanical isolation b) temporal isolation c) spatial isolation d) ecological isolation e) hybrid breakdown 33. Around Davis in the fall, one often sees fluffy white strands of silk several feet long drifting through the air. What are these strands? a) caterpillar dispersal devices b) feeding strands made by silkworms c) mate capture mechanisms used by spiders d) disperal devices for yOung spiders e) disintegrating bits of earthworm cocoons 34. Soft-shell crabs are eaten by many people. Why are their shells soft? a) they are a unique species with a soft shell b) they are raised in water with very little calcium c) they have just molted d) they have a trematode parasite that weakens the shell 8) they are still in the nauplius larva stage -8- 35. After completing your undergraduate degree, you take on an internship with a veternarian to see if this career suits you. A sick dog arrives and you notice that it has very thin whitish groups of boxes or segments in its feces. For what disease should you treat the dog? a) infestation with hirudineans b) infestation with chelicerates c) infestation with cestodes d) infestation with oligochaetes e) infestation with trematodes 36. Zooplankton is a term used for tiny animals of various taxa that swim or float in the surface waters of the ocean. Plankton could include: a) copepods b) barnacles c) trochophore larvae d) a and b e) a and c 37. Insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats can all fly. The Principle of Parsimony says we should accept the simplest number of evolutionary steps that explains all of the available facts. So, why do we assume four independent evolutionary events led to flight in these taxa, instead of one evolutionary event? a) because members of different phyla cannot share features b) because the wings are made very differently in each grOup c) because the common winged ancestor is now extinct d) we are wrong, birds and pterosaurs are both reptiles, so it is only 3 events e) we are wrong, birds, pterosaurs and bats are vertebrates, so it is 2 events 38. If you are watching a trochophore larva develop and you see a tiny shell begin to form at the same time as the gut twists into a figure 8, what kind of animal do you have? a) a squid b) a bivalve c) a gastropod d) a polychaete e) a chiton 39. Most land animals have internal fertilization. What do earthworms do? a) they put the egg and sperm into a cocoon b) they spawn into flower petals c) they can only mate on very rainy days d) they only reproduce asexually, without eggs or sperm 9) the sperm are very light and glide onto the eggs -9- 40. The term syncytial means having multiple nuclei inside a single cell membrane. Which of the following organisms have syncytial structures? a) flagellate protozoans b) ciliate protozoans c) tapeworms d) a and b e) b and c 41. Volvox is a colonial protozoan. The cells in the colony are flagellated and capable of photosynthesis. Biologists sometimes suggest that the first multicellular animals were arranged much like Volvox, but were not photosynthetic. They point to a particular developmental stage quite similar to this hypothetical ancestor. To what are they referring? a) a zygote b) a blastula c) a gastrula d) a gastrula with a complete gut e) a gastrula with developing mesoderm 42. Which of the following situations make use of a narrowed exit opening to generate a forceful stream of water? a) cephalopod siphons b) swimming in hydrozoan medusae c) a common exit pore for compound tunicates d) a 8: C e) a, b, and c 43. Apicomplexans are members of a parasitic protozoan phylum characterized by the possession of an apical complex. What is the purpose of the apical complex? a) to attach to mosquitos b) to sense the presence of a suitable host c) to burrow into host cells and insert the parasite d) to seek light e) to sense gravity 44. What is the function of the sea star's cardiac stomach? a) to suck up prey like an eversible pharynx b) to fire out of the mouth and grab prey as in a polychaete c) to filter prey out of the water like a cluster of tentacles d) to inject prey with a paralyzing venom e) to enter the prey and add digestive enzymes to it -10- 45. YOu are experimenting with developing eggs found in the ocean. You take one at the 16 cell-stage and divide it into 4 clusters of 4 cells each. To your surprise, each cluster of cells keeps growing, developing into Spiky little larvae. On what animal were you experimenting? a) a polychaete b) a crustacean c) an echinoderm d) a mollusc e) a leech 3 BONUS QUESTIONS--THESE QUESTIONS ARE OPTIONAL 46. The main function of the molluscan radula is: a) to insert venom b) to scrape up food c) to bite prey cl) to create an efficient filter e) to create suction on the foot 47. Horseshoe crabs, scorpions, and ticks are all: a) free—livin g b) ectoparasitic c) crustaceans d) chelicerates e) omnivores 48. Barnacles are unusual crustaceans. What makes them unusual? a) they are monoecious b) they are sessile c) they add calcium to the exoskeleton d) a and b both make them unusual e) a, b, and c make them unusual PLEASE TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE FOR FILL-IN QUESTIONS -11- FILL-INS: 49. The protozoan genus Paramecium contains species that live in both freshwater and marine habitats. Suppose all species have an internal concentration of 300 mOsm. Some species have large contractile vacuoles and other species lack these vacuoles. Biologists think that the contractile vacuoles function in osmoregulation and that their role is to release water from the cells. a. If the vacuoles do function in water release, sh0uld we find mOre contractile vacuoles in freshwater species or saltwater species? (1 pt) b. Explain your reasoning for part a. (2 pts) c. If we moved a freshwater protozoan with contractile vacuoles into water taken from an estuary, should it depend more or less on the function of its contractile vacuoles? (1 pt) d. Explain your reasoning for part c. (2 pts) e. In a fish, how is excess water released from the body? (1 pt). 50. a. What is a closed circulatory system? (2 pts) b. Name one animal that has a closed circulatory system. (1 pt) c. What is an open circulatory system? ( 2 pts) (1. Name one animal that has an open circulatory system. ( 1 pt) -12- ...
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KeenFinalF04 - Name:_ ID.# Biological Sciences 18 Fall 2004...

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