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KeenFinalS04 - Biological Sciences 13 Spring 2004 KEEN...

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Unformatted text preview: Biological Sciences 13 Spring 2004 - KEEN Final Examination Please Read the Instructions First. Check your pages--there are 15 pages in this exam. You are responsible for making sure that you have all the pages. This examination is worth 130 points. Please bubble in the last 6 digits of your student id. number on your scantron. There will be 4 blank spaces to the right of the id. number. Bubble the number from the bottom of the scantron into the scantron number box. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Indicate your answers on the scantron using a number 2 or a test scoring pencil. Press heavily, don’t stray out of the margins and completely erase any changed answers. 2. If you think that a question is ambiguous or confusing, use the ”explanation sheet” at the end of the examination to explain the problem. 3. There are 45 multiple choice questions worth 2 points each. 4. There are 3 optional bonus questions worth 2 points each. Fill-in Questions 1. Use pen only (no grade corrections for pencil). No white-out allowed. 2. Write only one answer per question--you can elaborate on an answer, but you will not be given any credit if you write two different answers to the question. 3. Spelling rules: 1 point off of 2-3 letters wrong or transposed. No points will be given if the misspelling alters the meaning of the word. 4. There are 4 fill-in questions worth 40 points in total. Choose the one best answer: 1. Tracheae: a) are used in respiration b) are found in insects c) are invaginations of the cuticle d) function in terrestrial habitats e) all of the above are true of trachaea 2. Soapberry bugs can be found near Wellman Hall at UCD, but they also live in Texas and Florida. Assume the population of these bugs is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium on the Davis campus. If you collected soapberry bugs in Florida and released them into the population at Wellman Hall, what is likely to occur? a) nothing, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium should be maintained b) natural selection will favor the Florida bugs on campus c) migration may alter the genotypic frequencies on campus d) non-random mating is the most likely to alter allele frequencies e) founder effects will be important on campus 3. A notochord, a coelom, spicules, and an exoskeleton function as: a) skeletal elements in a variety of animals b) elements of animal reproductive systems c) structures used for food collection in a variety of animals d) elements of animal respiratory systems e) elements of animal sensory systems 4. Thinking about body plans in leeches, monogeneans, trematodes, and cestodes, the presence of suckers is likely to characterize: a) only ectoparasites b) only endoparasites c) ectoparasites and endoparasites d) anything diploblastic e) only coelomate animals and not acoelomate animals 5. Thinking about the body plans of animals in Question #4, plus the body plans of squids, octopus, and sea urchins, it seems likely that: a) suckers are homologous across many taxa b) natural selection favored suckers as a means of attaching to a host c) suckers have evolved independently several times d) the detailed structure of the suckers will be the same in all these animals e) suckers are present only in protostomes 6. How is suction created in an echinoderm tube foot? a) the ampullae forces water into the foot, creating suction b) longitudinal muscles in the tube foot contract to create suction c) circular muscles in the ampulla contract to create suction (1) lower osmotic concentration in the tube foot causes the center to lift e) higher osmotic concentration in the tube foot causes the edge to expand 7. How does creating suction in many sea star tube feet help in feeding? a) it pulls small prey items out of the water b) it vacuums up particles deposited on the sea bottom c) it helps the sea stars hold onto the host gut lining d) it overcomes the contraction of bivalve adductor muscles e) it pulls coral polyps off the calcareous base 8. Chelicerates: a) are herbivorous grazers b) carry young in a pouch on their stomachs c) have 2 tagmata d) have 3 tagmata e) have 8 pairs of appendages 9. The presence or absence of a velum makes it possible to: a) tell a polyp from a medusa b) tell a coral from a sea anemone c) tell an anthozoan medusa from a scyphozoan medusa d) tell a hydrozoan medusa from a scyphozoan medusa e) tell a scyphozoan medusa from a Portuguese man 0' war 10. As a marine biologist working with asteroids and echinoids, what could you be doing? a) studying spiral cleavage during development b) studying the hormones involved in molting the exoskeleton c) studying how calcium crystals form an endoskeleton d) studying how the head and sensory systems form during development e) searching for evidence of extraterrestrial life on rocks from outer space 11. In a population of 2000 lancelets, the G gene has 2 alleles each present at a frequency of 0.5. What is the expected frequency of the heterozygotes in this population? a) 1.0 b) 0.75 c) 0.5 d) 0.25 e) 0.10 12. Feather color in budgies is; a) a quantitative or polygenic trait b) a nice example of codominance c) a nice example of the advantage of heterozygosity d) a discrete trait e) a good system for studying independent assortment 13. Mucus sheets are used to trap food particles from the water in: a) clams and other bivalves b) sessile tunicates c) larvaceans d) sponges e) the animals listed in a, b, and c 14. The extinct sea scorpions that were almost 10 feet long belong in: a) Subphylum Trilobita b) Subphylum Myriapoda c) Subphylum Hexapoda d) Subphylum Crustacea e) Subphylum Chelicerata 15. Which of these animals are predators? a) sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) b) cephalopods c) millipedes d) sand dollars e) all of the above 16. You are assigned the job of measuring fossil clams from samples taken every 2 million years for 8 periods. Over that time, shell thickness changed from 2 mm to 8 mm, but its variance did not increase. What might you conclude about shell thickness? a) it was under stabilizing selection b) it was under directional selection c) it was under divergent selection d) it was under frequency-dependent selection e) it was under sexual selection 17. Clams may be eaten by a variety of predators. Which of those listed below is likely to have been an agent of selection in Question #16? a) moon snails that drill or bore through the shell b) carnivorous worms that enter through the siphons c) crabs that crack the shells with their claws d) a and c e) a, b, and c USE THE CLADOGRAM BELOW TO ANSWER QUESTIONS 18 TO 21 \ \ 0’ O gage» __ Q0 Q9 .c A 0 'b 3‘ \‘ 6°” “1 U) K E 3 F N :2 ‘5 '0 >‘ ‘0 w m “l— ._ .C a) 0 c w o c. H >. c “x: m .c .c >~ "’ go a u “5.2 .a g w *-0 Tc ': £53m '— To 0— -- 1: u -- V' '5 .c“.E'S_ c -- 2:213 omE U‘Ex q, o ESQ-t; “DE 0 Eu >‘u -= 0’ mEJN chm :02 U Oo<|~30mz 9 6 6 6 6 3 e @ placoderms ostracoderms @ 18. Which lineages evolved after the origin of the amniotic egg--they possess the egg or its derivatives? a) lineage 8 b) lineages 8 and 9 c) lineages 9 and 10 d) lineages 10 and 11 e) lineages 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 19. Descendants of which lineages possess a simple lung g structures derived from the simple lung? a) lineages 6 to 15 inclusive b) lineages 8 to 15 inclusive c) lineages 9 to 15 inclusive d) lineages 10 to 15 inclusive e) lineages 11 to 15 inclusive 20. Lobe-finned fishes belong in which lineage? a) 5 b) 6 C) 7 d) 8 e) 9 21. Lungfishes, like those we have in each lab, belong in which lineage? a) 5 b) 6 C) 7 d) 8 e) 9 22. The jaw bones of bony fishes are thought to have evolved from: a) gill pouches b) gill slits c) plates in the skin between gill slits d) fish scales e) the bones of the inner ear 23. Bird feathers are homologous to: a) reptile scales b) fish scales c) amphibian poison glands cl) amphibian scales e) a 8: b 24. In species where the young require the care of both parents to survive, which one of the following is typical? a) males are larger than females b) males and females are of equal size c) each female mates with multiple males per season d) females are larger than males e) females fight among themselves for access to particular males 25. Comparing millipedes and centipedes, one would think that: a) carnivores have more legs than herbivores b) herbivores have streamlined bodies to fit into cracks or crevices c) carnivores probably chase down their prey by running d) a & c e) b 8: c 26. You are hired for a nature survey on small islands. On one island, a long way from the mainland, you find a small population of beetles. You know they don't fly very well and the nearest source population is the mainland. When the beetles are examined, they show very little genetic diversity. Some people think this is due to strong selection, but you think low diversity in this case is likely due to: a) lack of good mutations b) females all choosing the same male as a mate c) founder effects d) genetic drift 9) c and d together 27. Think about a caterpillar. The animal still molts the head capsule, but not the rest of the body. What factors are likely to be important in selection on this body? a) the possibility of continuous growth b) the energy saved by not creating something that is cast off c) reduced vulnerability to predators d) a & b e) a & c 28. When a marine animal, like a sea anemone, is suddenly plunged into a bowl of freshwater, what will happen to its body? a) ions will leave the body rapidly b) ions will enter the body rapidly c) water will enter the body causing bloating d) a and c will both occur e) b and c will both occur 29. The mosquito life cycle includes a worm-like stage, an aquatic predatory stage, and a flying blood-sucking adult. What term describes this type of life cycle? a) metamorphic b) hemimetabolous c) holometabolous d) sessile e) heterometabolous 30. Which group of mammals is most closely related to the reptiles? a) monotremes b) marsupials c) placentals d) bats e) whales and other aquatic forms 31. As an oceanography intern, you are hired to sort plankton tows. A plankton tow contains small animals found at the ocean's surface; it often includes larvae. In the first sample you find a tiny diamond-shaped animal with a band of cilia in the middle and tufts of cilia at the top and bottom. This animal has eyes and feeds. What is it? a) a trochophore larva b) a planula larva c) a nauplius larva d) a pelagic shelled amoeba e) a veliger larva 32. Continuing with the sample in question #31, you find a swimming stage that looks a bit like a trochophore, but there is a tiny shell developing at one end of the animal. What is it likely to be? a) an echinoderm larva b) a planula larva c) a nauplius larva d) a pelagic shelled amoeba e) a veliger larva 33. Still sorting larvae from question #31, you find a ciliated larva that you have not seen before. Calcareous plates seem to be forming inside the skin of this larva, pushing the body out into a spiky form, What could it be? a) an echinoderm larva b) a planula larva c) a nauplius larva d) a pelagic shelled amoeba e) a veliger larva 34. There is another spiky larva in your dish, but this one has an exoskeleton extended outward into many points. What was this larva before its first molt? a) an echinoderm larva b) a planula larva c) a nauplius larva d) a pelagic shelled amoeba e) a veliger larva 35. At the end of a long day of looking at plankton, you find a trochophore where the back seems to be dividing into 8 plates. What do you have? a) a juvenile crab b) a juvenile polychaete c) a juvenile oligochaete d) a juvenile chiton e) a juvenile tapeworm 36. What is a simultaneous hermaphrodite? a) an animal that reproduces asexually b) an animal that is male first and then later female c) an animal that is female first and then later male d) an animal that is both sexes at the same time e) b or c are both acceptable 37. As a young doctor, one of your patients returns from his vacation with extensive welts and scars on his legs. He swam in the tropics in a shallow bay. He noticed bluish white sacs that seemed to be full of air floating on the surface, but he did not see any dangerous animals. What happened to the patient? a) he walked over sea anemones b) cercaria burrowed into his skin c) he brushed against Portuguese man 0' war tentacles (:1) he drank seawater containing dinoflagellates e) he walked across a bed of sea urchins 38. Wolves can be crossed with dogs to produce fertile hybrids. However, wolves and dogs do not mate under natural conditions. Which of the following is true? a) they should be placed in a single species b) they show evidence of reproductive isolation c) they cannot be placed in the same family d) they must be mechanically isolated e) they must be temporally isolated 39. Which of the following has a closed circulatory system? a) an earthworm b) a grasshopper c) a snail d) a chiton e) a clam 40. What structure is used for locomotion in a squid or an octopus? a) the foot b) the mantle c) the arms d) the tentacles e) the beaks @@ @@ 41. Above are 5 cross sections cut from an earthworm. The head was closest to the left- hand sections and the anus to the right hand sections. The sections were cut with an even distance between them-~knowing this, estimate the percentage of the gut that contains a U-shaped fold designed to increase surface area for absoption? a) 20% b) 40% c) 60% d) 80% e) 100% 42. The third section was stained so that more structures are visible. Judging by the way the stained structures look in cross-section, they could be: a) groups of circular muscles b) septa c) groups of longitudinal muscles d) hearts e) parts of the clitellum 43. In which of the five sections can we see a ventral solid nerve cord? at) the first one on the left b) the second one on the left c) the third (middle) one d) the fourth one e) the fifth one 44. Teloblastic growth occurs when new segments are added just before the pygidium at the back end of the animal. Annelids grow by teloblastic growth and so do arthropods. Most biologists do not think that tapeworms are segmented, but a few biologists do consider tapeworm proglottids to be segments. New evidence suggests that the scolex is a posterior attachment organ and the head of the tapeworm was lost over evolutionary time. New proglottids are added just before the scolex. Using this evidence, what could you _no_w argue? a) that proglottids must contain a coelom, like annelids and arthropods b) that the method of growth is the same in annelids, arthropods and tapeworms c) that the head ot a tapeworm was divided into proglottids d) that all protostomes are segmented e) that annelids, arthropods and platyhelminthes are all coelomate -10- 45. The echinoderms have no freshwater species. This strongly suggests that they are n__ot able to: a) match the internal osmotic concentration to the external concentration b) keep ions inside the body c) release ions d) make large amounts of very dilute urine e) maintain an internal ion concentration against an external ion gradient 3 BONUS QUESTIONS--THESE QUESTIONS ARE OPTIONAL 46. When would an anadromous fish like a salmon add to TMAO to its blood? a) when it entered freshwater b) when it was in estuary before going out to the ocean c) when it was in an estuary before going up a river or stream d) when it enters the ocean e) at birth 47. Which of the following animals digest their prey outside the body of the predator? a) a spider b) a sea star c) a predatory polychaete d) animals a & b e) animals a, b (S: c 48. Armadillos make 4 identical offspring at each reproductive event. Which feature below is required for this sort of development? a) spiral cleavage b) radial cleavage c) mosaic cleavage d) regulative cleavage e) a triploblastic body PLEASE TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE FOR FILL-IN QUESTIONS -11- FILL-INS: 49. The disease malaria occurs around the world and is found in many animals including birds, lizards, mice and humans. a. What organism transmits malaria? (1 pt) b. What organism causes malaria? (1 pt) c. On what does the causal organism feed? (1 pt) (1. In humans in malarial areas, the gene for sickle cell anemia may be present. Since humans are diploid, there are 3 possible genotypes of humans when the gene is present in the population. What are they? (3 pts) e. Which genotype has the highest fitness in the presence of malaria? ( 1pt) f. Why does this genotype have such high fitness? (2 pts) g. Will this genotype ever reach a frequency of 1.0, given that it produces high fitness? Explain. (2 pts). h. What kind of selection do we see on the sickle-cell anemia gene? (1 pt) -12- 50. What are the 4 defining characters for a chordate? (4 pts) 1. 2. 3. 4. Where in the life cycle do these characters occur in a sessile tunicate? (1 pt) Where in the life cycle of a hagfish do these characters occur? (1 pt) What is paedomorphosis? (1 pt) Neoteny is one kind of paedomorphosis. Explain one example of neoteny in the chordates. (2 pts) 51. A Video in class showed male and female jewel beetles. The females had orange dimpled bodies and were larger than males. What selective factor favors large female body size in this case? What must be heritable here? (2 pts) How does male mate preference operate in this situation? (1 pt) What is the general term for selection that operates through one gender's preference for the other? (1 pt) How does this type of selection interact with natural selection in the situation described above? What is the net outcome of selection in this case? (2 pts) -13- 52. Follow instructions on the cladogram below. (13 points). On the cladogram above, write the number of each character into the correct position. Write each character only once, but you can ._ _ put more than one character in each spot, if __ necessary. . coelom by enterocoely . paired epidermal setae . choanocytes . water vascular system . gastrula stage of development . S-part radial symmetry cnidocytes ability to molt (ecdysis) presence of mesoderm 10. trochophore larva 11. mantle 12. blastula stage of development 13. blastopore becomes mouth -14- Explanation of Thought Processes Instructions: 1. Put your name at the top of the page—J TEAR THIS PAGE OFF TO READ IT. 2. If you think that a question is ambiguous or confusing, indicate the question number, the answer you gave, and the reason that you gave this answer. Question # Answer you gave Reason you are worried -15- ...
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