KeenMT2F04

KeenMT2F04 - XS w 8‘13 Name Last First Biological Sciences 18 Fall 2004 KEEN Midterm#2 Please Read the Instructions First Check your

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Unformatted text preview: XS w 8‘13 Name: _ Last First Biological Sciences 18 Fall 2004 KEEN Midterm #2. Please Read the Instructions First. Check your pages——there are 10 pages in this exam. You are responsible for making sure that you have all the pages. This examination is worth 85 points. Please bubble in the last 6 digits of your student id. number on your scantron. There will be 4 blank spaces to the right of the id. number. Bubble the number from the bottom of the scantron into the scantron number box. Mark Test Form B Multiple Choice Questions 1. Indicate your answers on the scantron sheet using a number 2 or a test scoring pencil. Press heavily, but neatly, and completely erase any changes . 2. If you think that a question is ambiguous or confusing, use the “explanation sheet” at the end of the examination. Please put your name on the explanation sheet. 3. There are 30 multiple choice questions worth 2 points each and 3 optional bonus points worth 2 points each. Fill-in Questions 1. Use pen only (no grade corrections for pencil). No white out. 2. Write only one answer per question--you can elaborate on an answer, but you will not be given any credit if you write two different answers to the question. 3. Spelling rules: 1/2 credit if 2—3 letters are wrong or transposed. No points will be given if the misspelling alters the meaning of the word. 4. There are 3 fill-in questions worth 25 points in total. Page 8: _______ __ Choose the one best answer: 1. The choanocyte: a) occurs in flatworms b) is used in defense of the colony c) is the most important cell type in mesoderm d) moves water through the body of a sponge e) is the main cell type in a trochophore larva 2‘ There are many species of coral on the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. Most species release their eggs and sperm into the water on the first full moon in June. What is the most likely mechanism of reproductive isolation for these species? a) temporal isolation b) mechanical isolation c) gametic isolation d) behavioral isolation e) ecological isolation 3. The blind gut occurs in: a) cnidarians b) flatworms c) snails d) a &b e) a, b & c 4. A complete gut with distinct processing regions occurs in: a) poriferans b) sea anemones c) jellyfish d) platyhelminthes e) annelids 5. The shared-derived character (synapomorphy) that defines the cnidarians is: a) the cnidocyte b) the trochophore larva c) the blind gut d) gastrula stage of development e) the blastula stage of development 6. You are trying to write a paper on the effects of directional selection within the Class Cephalopoda. On what character could you focus for a good paper? a) size and shape of the radula b) size and shape of the mantle c) size and shape of the shell d) size and shape of the foot e) size and shape of the chromatophores 7. _You want to illustrate a polymorphic colony to a fellow student. Which animal would be helpful? a) a typical hydrozoan b) a typical poriferan c) a typical scyphozoan d) a sea anemone e) a medusa 8. While on a nature walk, you notice two mating earthworms. Your friend in philosophy wants to know how to tell which one is the male. What do you say? a) the larger one is male b) the smaller one is male c) both animals have male parts d) the one secreting the cocoon is male 8) the one that does not secrete the cocoon is male 9. The concept of optimization involves finding a solution that is best for two contradictory problems. Which situations for surface-area-to—volume—ratios would have to be optimized? a) the need to take up oxygen and to release wastes b) the need to take up oxygen and to reduce evaporation c) the need to take up oxygen and to release excess heat d) the need to take up oxygen and to absorb more heat e) the need to take up oxygen and to expose internal algae to light 10. The trochophore larva: a) is shared by some annelids and molluscs b) is a feeding larval form c) has a complete gut d) has a central band of cilia used in swimming e) all of the above are true of the trochophore 11. You are hired to work on trematode population genetics. Dissecting the livers from birds, you find the frequency of the X allele is 0.30 in a parental generation of trematodes. There are only 2 alleles for this gene What is the expected frequency of the Xx genotype for the next generation of adult trematodes in birds? a) 0.09 b) 0.30 c) 0.21 d) 0.42 e) 0.70 12. You decide to focus your genetic sampling on trematodes found in snail guts. You sample 100 redia from one snail and find that 80% have the genotype Xx. Is this a good test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a) yes, the redia are the trematode offspring generation b) no, the redia could be asexual copies of one or two genotypes c) no, adult trematodes do not reproduce sexually d) yes, you only have to sample a few snails to estimate adult reproduction e) yes, you have a big sample size so it should be a good test 13. In the asconoid body plan, where would one find choanocytes? a) randomly arranged within the sponge body b) in small canals within the sponge body wall c) in small chambers within the sponge body wall (1) lining the central cavity of each sponge tube e) on the external surface of each sponge tube 14. Which of the following animals are bilaterally symmetrical triploblasts? a) sea anemones b) flatworms c) annelids d) b and c e) a, b, and c 15. Which of the following would help you distinguish between a protostome and a deuterostome? a) the number of tissue layers present b) the position of cells in the upper quartet relative to the lower quartet c) whether or not the blastopore becomes the mouth d) b and c e) a, b, and c 16. Respiration, the supply of oxygen for an organism, has two parts: oxygen uptake and oxygen distribution. How is respiration accomplished in a free—living flatworm? a) by diffusion across the body wall into cells b) by diffusion into external gills and a blood supply c) by a diffusion across a moist internal cavity and into a blood supply d) by diffusion across the body wall into a blood supply e) by diffusion into internal gills and then to a blood supply 17. How is respiration accomplished in a poriferan? a) by diffusion across the body wall into cells b) by diffusion into external gills and a blood supply c) by a diffusion across a moist internal cavity and into a blood supply d) by diffusion across the body wall into a blood supply e) by diffusion into internal gills and then to a blood supply 18. How is respiration accomplished in a terrestrial gastropod? a) by diffusion across the body wall into cells b) by diffusion into external gills and a blood supply c) by a diffusion across a moist internal cavity and into a blood supply d) by diffusion across the body wall into a blood supply e) by diffusion into internal gills and then to a blood supply 19. How is respiration accomplished in a terrestrial earthworm? a) by diffusion across the body wall into cells b) by diffusion into external gills and a blood supply c) by a diffusion across a moist internal cavity and into a blood supply (1) by diffusion across the body wall into a blood supply e) by diffusion into internal gills and then to a blood supply 20. Which of these following animals are ectoparasites? a) squid b) leeches C) monogeneans d) b and c e) a, b, and c 21. You find a tube—dwelling polychaete with red tentacles. What do the tentacles do? a) help in food capture b) help in reproduction c) help in respiration d) a and b e) a and c 22. The cytoplasm of a zygote is divided among cells every time cleavage occurs. In organisms with mosaic cleavage, the cytoplasm contains mRNAs which determine the fate of the cells. In which animals would we see mosaic cleavage? a) a polychaete b) a Portuguese man of war c) a coral d) a sponge e) all of the above 23. Which of the following describes schizocoely? a) formation of the gut by invagination b) formation of the anus as the gut cavity extends through the body c) formation of a cavity inside mesoderm by splitting of this layer d) formation of a cavity inside mesoderm by outward pouching of the gut e) formation of the mouth from the second gut opening 24. Which of the following will be true when torsion is complete? a) the anus and the gills are at the posterior of the animal b) the anus is closed making a blind gut c) gas exchange occurs across the skin d) the anus and gills are at the anterior of the animal e) the gills are greatly expanded and used for feeding and respiration 25. Which of the followin in an annelid? a) a fluid filled coelom in each body segment b) a fluid filled coelom that extends through the entire body c) diagonal muscles d) a and c e) b and c g is / are essential in creating a hydrostatic skeleton 26. What structure holds the two shells closed in a bivalve? a) the radula b) the mantle edges c) the adductors d) the foot e) the ctenidia 27. Chitons crawl slowly. What might account for the wide distribution of many species? a) very active sperm and eggs b) a feeding swimming trochophore stage c) being ectoparasitic on fish (:1) being an endoparasite in birds e) sticking to the outside of crabs 28. Which of the following animals is assumed to have had an ancestor with a radula. but does not have a radula? a) clams b) chitons c) octopus d) cone snails e) slugs 29. Why are corals limited to shallow water? a) the deep water is too cold for them b) their larvae have very poor dispersal ability c) they cannot live below the depth of light penetration d) their predators are found in very deep water e) they cannot secrete the calcareous base under water pressure 30. Chromatophores are: a) the unique cells that occur in sponges b) the unique cells that occur in sea anemones c) pigment cells in the skin of cephalopods d) cells that produce toxins in cephalopod salivary glands e) the packets that hold sperm from male cephalopods An optional bonus question: 31. What is the major function of mucus on a bivalve ctenidium? a) respiration b) food capture c) reproduction d) waste removal e) circulation Please see fill-in questions on the next page. FILL—INS 32. Biologists have long been aware that most parasites have highly simplified bodies as compared to their free—living relatives. ASSume the ancestral platyhelminth was similar to a modern turbellarian. Choose 3 characters and describe the hypothetical ancestral state and its simplifed derived condition in tapeworms. (6 points) Ancestral Derived Character Character State State in Tapeworms 1. 2. 3. 33. Assume that the ancestral mollusc had a foot like a chiton. Choose another class of molluscs and explain how this ancestral feature was modified in the descendant. Describe the change in function of the new foot. (4 points) The shape and structure of the ancestral foot was: The derived group I will discuss is: How has the shape of the foot changed from the ancestral form to the derived form? What changes in function accompany the change in form? 34. Construct a data matrix for the cnidarians. Score the characters below based on your knowledge of 3 cnidarian classes and a sponge outgroup using 0 if the character is absent and 1 if the character is present. For mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA), score circular DNA as 0 and linear DNA as 1. mt DNA is circular in Porifera and Anthozoa, but it is linear in Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa. (8 points) Polyps? Medusae? velum? mtDNA Cnidocytes? Summary Anthozoa Hydrozoa Scyphozoa Porifera Using your summary data, fill-in the distance matrix (3 points). Anthozoa Hydrozoa Scyphozoa Porifera Anthozoa X _ "WM- _-_ Hydrozoa X X Scyphozoa X X X _~___ Porifera X X X X Using information from the dist ance matrix, and Porifera as the outgroup, place the taxa on the tree in the most parsimonious configuration (3 points). What character could be used to define the most derived pair of sister taxa: (1 point) ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/26/2008 for the course BIS 1b taught by Professor Kimsey during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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KeenMT2F04 - XS w 8‘13 Name Last First Biological Sciences 18 Fall 2004 KEEN Midterm#2 Please Read the Instructions First Check your

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