GEOL 107 - GENERAL GEOLOGY - STUDY GUIDE PART 1 This guide contains in an outline/question format the important points that we have covered in the lecture portion of the course, you will be expected to have an understanding of this material for an exam. If you learn only one thing in the course, let it be this - the Earth is a dynamic planet- it is constantly evolving; in terms of a human lifetime (say 100 years) it is hard to observe any differences, however if we switch to a geologic time scale (thousands to millions of years) we see that the Earth has changed dramatically. Minerals - Chapter 4 in Exploring GeologyWhat is a mineral? What are the eight most abundant elements in the earth's crust? (see section 4.10 in text) What is an ion? Understand the various types of chemical bonds 1) ionic bonds 2) covalent bonds 3) metallic bonds 3) van der Waals' bonds Which bond is strongest? weakest? Which bond is associated with the hardest minerals? What is the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron? What is the net charge of an individual silicon-oxygen tetrahedron? Understand the various structures for the silicate minerals, mainly concentrate on how many oxygen anions are shared with other tetrahedra and the complexity of the structure 1) isolated tetrahedron structure - e.g., mineral olivine 2) single-chain structure - e.g., mineral pyroxene 3) double chain structure - e.g., mineral amphibole 4) sheet structure - e.g., mica minerals 5) framework structure - e.g., quartz, feldspars What are halides? Halite is an example of a halide mineral What are oxides? Hematite is an example of an oxide mineral What are sulfides? Pyrite is an example of a sulfide mineral
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