Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
PSYCH 101 PRELIM 1 NOTES Situational and Social Influences on Critical Thinking Blind Obedience to Authority (Engrained) Figures (parents, bosses, etc) Symbols of Authority (Signs, badges, etc) Stanley Milgram arranged a study on “memory and learning” at Yale University. Prediction : a large proportion would be willing to give minimal shocks, but there would be a quick drop off Result : a very large proportion with a slight drop off toward the end. Insignificant differences in the results across gender, personality, intelligence, socioeconomic status, occupational level. Voice feedback condition – the subjects heard the “learners” pain – psychologically more difficult to continue. Prompted with “experiment requires that you continue” and “cannot stop the experiment once underway”. Status of authority figure: When authority figure received shocks, all stop on command When an argument occured between authority figures, all stop quickly With unwilling peers, much more inclined to leave room When an ordinary man replaced authority, all refused. When he tried to proceed himself, all tried to stop him. Taped instruction, less likely to follow orders and then claim otherwise Authority decides to stop, learner pleads to continue. All stop. Status of institution: a different version conducted at a less prestigious and private setting Someone else assumed responsibility Shocks were said not to be harmful Gradual steps, demand of the machine (buzzed when no shock was given) Focus of study – on learning Sadistic impulses Physical distance: different versions involving remote, voice feedback, visual proximity, touch proximity, control of a generator powering the switches No practice in respectful disobedience Sheridan and King a more believable situation involving dogs as learners. 54% of males and 100% of females gave the 450 volt shock. Male experimenters were subconsciously more demanding and louder with females. Astroten Study was conducted at 22 wards and involved the obedience of nurses to doctors. Dose was excessive, not allowed over the phone for non pre-approved drugs, coming from an unfamiliar doctor. 21 out of 22 nurses obeyed orders. Diffusion of Responsibility Status of Authority Fear of Not Obeying 1
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
PSYCH 101 PRELIM 1 NOTES Military Col. Oliver North and the Iran Contra Scandal Adolph Eichmann Abu Grahib The fundamental attribution error is to emphasize personality disposition and minimize situational forces. Start with ideological justification Use authority figures to legitimate actions Use of rules and policies to channel options Have situations that permit taboo acts Initial minimal acts but with eventual subsequent escalation Displace responsibility to the authority Use of strange and novel settings No training in challenging or exiting Anonymity Philip Zimbardo studied known versus unknown shocks without anyone insisting on continuing but under the belief that they are performing a necessary social act. Remoteness of violence
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 6


This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online