UREA CYCLE - Learning Objectives Students will be expected...

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Learning Objectives Students will be expected to explain with some specific names of enzymes and metabolic intermediates: 1. How amino acids are catabolized. 2. How nitrogen is transferred as amino groups in transamination reactions. 3. How excess nitrogen is removed in the liver through the Urea Cycle. 4. Useful intermediates connecting Urea Cycle and CAC. 5. Clinical Case: Diseases of amino acid metabolism, often involving hyperammonemia. 6. Amino acid metabolism and cancer When it comes to amino acid metabolism, for the most part were going to be focusing on the transformation of amino acids that could occur as a result of a degredation of proteins that were consumed in diet, or breakdown of our own tissues -AA can used to make new proteins -or can be oxidized like any carh. And used to make energy (in terms of metabolism that’s oxidation) -if youre going to oxidize the AA the nitrogen is going to go somewhere -that’s a lot of what were talking about -how to get the N out of the tissue, and get it to liver and 1. this is from your own tissues -remainder goes through oxidation 2. -when youre just a carnivore youll have a lot of amino acids to degrade, convert it to carb 3. carbs are not available, turning over your own tissues is all you have lef t -remember in recitation, nutrition excercie -huge reserves of energy in form of proteins, but you don’t wanan use these, if you run out youll starve to dead
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Autophagy When we talk about the turn over of our proteins, a fair amount of this consumption of our own proteins Process by why Intracellular protein finds itself into the lysosome for degredation in a regulated way Complexes of proteins that are highly regulated (the dots) o Can be internalized by building double membrane around cell membrane components (can be mitochondria or cytosol) Quite selective- signaling processing Proteasome
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Fate of Amino Acids Basics of Nitrogen Transfer 1. Under what conditions would cells need to increase the oxidation of amino acids?
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2.
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