fermentaion freshman seminar

fermentaion freshman seminar - Yoghurts, wine & cheese...

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Yoghurts, wine & cheese (Fermentations, bacteria, yeast) FRS 003-001 The Molecular Kitchen February 7, 2007
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History of Fermentation Fruits can ferment naturally. Since prehistoric times humans have been taking control of fermentation. The earliest evidence of winemaking dates from 6000 BC, in Georgia, the former Soviet Republic. People were fermenting beverages in Babylon circa 5000 BC, Egypt circa 3150 BC, Mexico circa 2000 BC, and Sudan circa 1500 BC. There was leavened bread in Egypt circa 1500 BC and of milk fermentation in Babylon circa 3000 BC. The Chinese were the first to ferment vegetables.
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Modern History French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first zymologist , when in 1857 he connected yeast to fermentation. He defined fermentation as " respiration without air ". "I am of the opinion that alcoholic fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells”. The German Eduard Buchner, winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in chemistry, later determined that fermentation was actually caused by a yeast secretion that he termed zymas.
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Benefits of Fermentation The primary benefit of fermentation is the conversion of carbohydrates, e.g., converting juice into wine, grains into beer, and sugars in vegetables into preservative organic acids. Food fermentation serves the following purposes: Enrichment of the diet through new flavors, aromas, and textures. Preservation of food through lactic acid, alcohol, or acetic acid. (E.g. In pickling the acid produced by the dominant bacteria inhibit the growth of all other microorganisms) Biological enrichment of food with protein, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. Detoxification during food-fermentation processing. Decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements.
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Worldwide: alcohol, wine, vinegar, olives, yogurt, bread, cheese Asia East and Southeast Asia: amazake, asinan, bai-ming, belacan, burong mangga, dalok, doenjang, douchi, jeruk, lambanog, kimchi, kombucha, leppet-so, narezushi, miang, miso, nata de coco, nata de pina, natto, naw-mai-dong, pak- siam-dong, paw-tsaynob in snow, prahok, sake, seokbakji, soy sauce, stinky tofu, szechwan cabbage, tai-tan tsoi, fermented dog head, tape, tempeh, totkal kimchi, yen tsai, zha cai Central Asia: kumis (mare milk), kefir, shubat (camel milk) India: achar, appam, dosa, dhokla, dahi, gundruk, idli, mixed pickle Africa: garri, hibiscus seed, hot pepper sauce, injera, lamoun makbouss, laxoox, mauoloh, msir, mslalla, oilseed, ogi, ogili, ogiri Americas: cheese, chicha, elderberry wine, kombucha, pickled vegetables, sauerkraut, lupin seed, oilseed, chocolate, vanilla, tabasco, tibicos Middle East: kushuk, lamoun makbouss, mekhalel, torshi, boza Europe: cheese, rakfisk, sauerkraut, surströmming, quark, kefir, filmjölk, crème fraîche, smetana, skyr, mead, elderberry wine. Oceania:
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fermentaion freshman seminar - Yoghurts, wine & cheese...

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