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Unformatted text preview: BIS 2 nd 4 oclock ALL opening cases- just Lixus closing case C H A P T E R 5 Hardware Basics o Central Processing Unit (CPU) the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices worth together (EX: Intel) Binary digit (bit) the smallest unit of information a computer can process Byte a group of 8 bits representing one natural language character The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU Megahertz (MHz) millions of cycles per unit Gigahertz (GHz) billions of cycles per unit CPU speed factors: Clock speed the speed of the internal clock of a CPU that sets the pace at which operations proceed within the computers internal processing Word length number of bits (0s and 1s) that can be processed at once Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip type of CPU that can recognize 100+ instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed Virtualization a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines Primary storage the computers main memory, consisting of: RAM random access memory o primary working memory o stores program instructions and data o accessed directly by the CPU via the processors high-speed external data bus o volatility Cache memory small unit of ultra-fast memory, used to store recently accessed or frequently accessed data ROM read-only memory, portion of computers primary memory that does not lose its contents when computer is switched off o Nonvolatile o Flash memory, memory card, memory stick Control Unit Secondary storage consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage o MG (megabyte), GB (gigabyte), TB (terabyte) o Magnetic medium magnetic tape, hard drive o...
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- Fall '07