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Unformatted text preview: BIS 2 nd 4 o’clock ALL opening cases- just Lixus closing case C H A P T E R 5 • Hardware Basics o Central Processing Unit (CPU) – the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices worth together (EX: Intel) Binary digit (bit) – the smallest unit of information a computer can process Byte – a group of 8 bits representing one natural language character The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU • Megahertz (MHz) – millions of cycles per unit • Gigahertz (GHz) – billions of cycles per unit CPU speed factors: • Clock speed – the speed of the internal clock of a CPU that sets the pace at which operations proceed within the computer’s internal processing • Word length –number of bits (0s and 1s) that can be processed at once Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip – type of CPU that can recognize 100+ instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip – limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed Virtualization – a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines Primary storage – the computer’s main memory, consisting of: • RAM – random access memory o primary working memory o stores program instructions and data o accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus o volatility • Cache memory – small unit of ultra-fast memory, used to store recently accessed or frequently accessed data • ROM – read-only memory, portion of computer’s primary memory that does not lose its contents when computer is switched off o Nonvolatile o Flash memory, memory card, memory stick Control Unit • Secondary storage – consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage o MG (megabyte), GB (gigabyte), TB (terabyte) o Magnetic medium – magnetic tape, hard drive o...
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- Fall '07
- main memory, Input devices, low quality information