history 9a final - 1 Sanjay Subrahmanyam History 9A 7...

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Sanjay SubrahmanyamHistory 9A7 December 20161.Question 1:What were the chief institutional features that in your opinion helped toensure the stability of the Mughal empire between 1570 and 1700? What explanationscan we give for the progressive transformation of the empire in the course of the 18thcentury?1
landholdings, whose income went to the Jagirdar (holder of jagir). In order to keep the officerstied to the center, Akbar kept changing the size and location of the Jagirs on the basis of theperformance of the officers (Asher and Talbot). Apart from Jagirs, there were Khalisas, whichwere directly taxed by the central power. Under Akbar’s reign, land tax and reform measuresfrom Sher Shah Puri’s time were refined. “All land was measured according to uniform imperialstandard to determine the agriculture yield rate. Then, based on data gathered from a ten-yearperiod on the yield and price of crops in any particular locality, tax rates were established withgreater accuracy than ever before” (Asher and Talbot). Tax was paid in cash. Akbar asserted thatonly his coins be circulated in his empire to establish his hegemony. For this purpose, variousminting centers were spread across his empire, where coins from other kingdoms could beconverted to ‘rupiya’ (Mughal silver currency). There was a sophisticated system of checks andbalances, e.g. governors appointed by the emperor had to deal with commanders of forts, judges,military officers (Kulke and Rothermund). Akbar believed in the notion of universal toleration

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Term
Summer
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
History, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Mughal emperor Bahadur

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