endo and exo - Chapter 13 Weathering Karst Landscapes and...

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Chapter 13 Weathering, Karst Landscapes, and Mass Movement Geosystems 5e An Introduction to Physical Geography Robert W. Christopherson Charlie Thomsen
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Exogenic/Endogenic Systems Chapter 13 begins the treatment of the exogenic system (internal processes that produce flows of heat and material from deep below the crust, powered by radioactive decay). This is the solid realm of Earth. . Chapters 11 and 12 covered the endogenic system. As the landscape is formed, a variety of exogenic processes simultaneously operate to wear it down. The endogenic system (external processes that set air, water (streams and waves), and ice into motion, powered by solar energy). This is the fluid realm of Earth's environment; it builds and creates initial landscapes, while the exogenic system works towards low relief, little change, and the stability of sequential landscapes. The distinction is shown in Figure 11-5:
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Exogenic/Endogenic Systems
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What is weathering? Have you noticed highways in mountainous in cold climates that appear rough and broken? Roads that experience freezing weather seem to pop-up in chunks each winter? Or, maybe you saw older marble structures, such as tombstones, etched and dissolved by rainwater? Similar physical and chemical weathering processes are important to the overall reduction of the landscape and the release of essential minerals from bedrock. A simple examination of soil gives evidence of weathered mineral grains from many diverse sources.
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Key Learning Concepts for this Topic: Define the science of geomorphology. Illustrate the forces at work on materials residing on a slope. Define weathering and explain the importance of parent rock and joints and fractures in rock. Describe frost action, crystallization, hydration, pressure-release jointing, and the role of freezing water as physical weathering processes. Describe the susceptibility of different minerals to the chemical weathering processes called hydrolysis, oxidation, carbonation, and solution. Review the processes and features associated with karst topography. Portray the various types of mass movements and identify examples of each in relation to moisture content and speed of movement
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1. What is geomorphology and what is its relationship with physical geography? Geomorphology is a science that analyzes and describes the origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution of landforms. It is an important aspect of the study of physical geography and the understanding of the spatial-physical aspects of landforms. An interesting example of geomorphology is the Grand Canyon of Arizona: the erosional processes that reduce a landscape like the Grand Canyon are balanced against the resistance of the materials that make up the landscape. Weathering and erosional forces naturally oscillate, especially in the desert, with high rainfall variability coming in episodic thunderstorms. Each rainfall event at the Grand Canyon operates on available slopes and cliffs. The river receives materials and discharges its flow of water and sediment load. The variation in
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