Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8
Emotion Motivation The biological, emotional, cognitive,
or social forces that activate and
• The set of factors that initiate and direct behavior, usually toward a goal. Activating Behavior Internal Factors
• Instinct theories Instincts: Unlearned, characteristic patterns of
responding that are controlled by specific
stimuli. People are motivated to engage in certain
behaviors because of evolutionary
programming. Activating Behavior Drive Theories
• Behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet
biological needs. Drive: A psychological state that arises in
response to an internal physiological need i.e. Hunger or thirst Activating Behavior Homeostasis
• Process through which body restores balance
• Reducing a drive = Restoring homeostasis i.e.: Maintaining constant internal temperature Activating Behavior External Factors
• Incentive Theories Behavior is motivated by the pull of external
goals, such as rewards.
• Incentive Motivation: External factors in the environment that exert pulling effects on
our actions. i.e. Earning $ at a summer job Activating Behavior Arousal Theories
• Behavior is motivated to maintain a level of physiological arousal that is optimal. Neither too high nor too low. Different for
everyone. • Sensation Seeking Personality trait The need for an individual to have varied,
complex, and unique sensory experiences. Often
of a risky nature in today’s society. Activating Behavior Achievement Motivation
• Internal need for achievement
• Possessed by all individuals to varying degrees
• Depends on your expectations of success
and on how much you value the task i.e. Climbing career ladder Activating Behavior Intrinsic Motivation
• Goal-directed behavior that seems to be entirely self-motivated
• No obvious internal or external source Engaging in the behavior “for it’s own sake” • Can actually be reduced by external rewards Activating Behavior Bottom Line:
• Motivated behavior is jointly determined by BOTH internal and external factors. i.e.: An internal drive (hunger) can increase
motivating effect of an incentive (food) Incentives Drive Activating Behavior Conditioning and motivation
• Because of conditioning, certain foods are associated with the experience of
• These foods are said to have a greater
Positive Incentive Value Positive Incentive Value – The expectation of pleasure
or satisfaction in performing a particular behavior. In food – the anticipated pleasure of consuming a
particular food. Activating Behavior What if you need more than one
thing at a time? Maybe food and
friendship? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Prioritizes human needs
• Based on humanist branch of psychology
• Difficult to test, but influential in looking at need Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs Activating Behavior What would you do?
• You just finished a 48-hour fast for a charity and are on your way to celebrate and get
some food. As you leave the building, you
run into someone you’ve been interested in
for quite some time and they invite you to
an all-day movie marathon at a theatre you
know has NO food. A) Go the movies B) Get some food Activating Behavior What would you do?
• You are decorating your apartment and are planning on choosing a paint color this
morning. As you leave the building, you run
into someone you’ve been interested in for
quite some time and they invite you to an
all-day movie marathon at a theatre you
know has NO paint. A) Go the movies B) Look for paint Questions? What Activates Behavior?
• Instincts & Drives
• Incentive Motivation
• Achievement Motivation
• Intrinsic Motivation
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger Internal Factors
• Body Signals Glucose Main source of energy Insulin Controls blood levels of glucose. Regulates eating behavior Satiation – Feeling of fullness and diminished
desire to eat. Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger Internal Factors
• Brain Regions Damage to certain parts of the hypothalamus
regulates eating behavior. Damage to hippocampus: Reduced memory of eating. Hypothalamu
s Hippocampus Meeting Biological Needs:
Hunger External Factors
• Eating Habits Personal or cultural habits regarding eating play
major roles in when, what, and how much we
• Food Cues The sight of food is often enough to make us
start eating. i.e. dessert tray Meeting Biological Needs:
Hunger Regulating Body Weight
• Set-Point Theory “Natural” body weight The body defends from becoming higher or
lower weights by regulating hunger.
• Obesity Biological Factors Genetics Leptin Resistance Weight Cycling Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger Regulating Body Weight
• Obesity Psychological Factors “Supersize It” Syndrome: Increased environmental pressure to overeat and
increase portion size. Cafeteria Diet Effect: Variety = More consumed “Diet” Fallacy: People often eat more of a “healthy” food, than they
would an unhealthy one – eliminating the potential
health benefit. Interaction between biological and
psychological factors. Meeting Biological Needs:
Hunger Eating Disorders
• Anorexia Nervosa Fear of being overweight,
typically eat very little Can cause severe damage
to body, and even death
• Bulimia Nervosa Binge eating, followed by purging Can cause tooth decay and intestinal damage What causes eating disorders?
• Culture and the media?
• Bulimia is more recent and more limited to Western cultures.
• However, anorexia occurs all over the world,
and has been documented for centuries. Expressing and Experiencing Emotion Defining Emotion Emotions are experiences that involve:
1. Some kind of subjective experience i.e. feeling of happiness, anger, fear, etc. 2. An expressive reaction i.e. facial expression, acting out 3. A physiological response i.e. increased blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tension Expressing and Experiencing
Emotion Are there basic emotions?
• Emotions expressed in the same way universally.
• Difficult to agree on a complete list Fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness,
sadness • Facial expressions & culture
• Blind children and smiling Expressing and Experiencing
Emotion In more complex situations, people
experience mixed emotions.
• Different emotions experienced simultaneously or in rapid succession. Expressing and Experiencing
Emotion So when we feel happy, we smile, or
when we are sad we frown.
• BUT, will smiling or frowning make us happy or sad? Facial-Feedback
Hypothesis This study suggests…
• Muscles in the face deliver signals to the brain… that are interpreted as a subjective
emotional state. Anger Imagine you are running late for class &
someone cuts you off in the parking lot to
take the last free spot. How would you
• Physiological response: red face, increased heart rate
& blood pressure
• Expressive reaction: grimace, expletives
• Subjective experience: feeling ticked off Anger Caused by violated expectations
Everyone experiences it in varying
degrees – is it healthy to express it?
• Catharsis Happiness What makes you happy?
• Money? Friends? Circumstances?
• Are certain periods in life happier than others? Research suggests:
• How well your standards for satisfaction are met.
• We gain and lose happiness as a result of
the comparisons we make. Happiness Who is happy? (Myers & Diener,
• Men and women??
• Minority and majority individuals??
• Different age groups??
• Wealthy…?? Rich vs. Poor Countries = Rich are happier Within a Rich Country = No significant difference
if able to pay for life’s necessities Possible confounding variable of democracy Happiness Who is happy? (Myers & Diener,
• High level of self-esteem
• Sense of personal control
• Have close relationships
• High job satisfaction
• People with religious faith Theories of Emotion Common Sense
• The subjective experience drives the physiological reaction Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory
• Body reactions precede and drive the subjective experience of emotion Theories of Emotion Cannon-Bard Theory
• Body reactions and subjective experiences occur together, but independently Schacter & Singer
Experiment What about the cognitive side of emotion?
Schacter & Singer Experiment, 1960’s
• Method: Volunteers injected with epinephrine (adrenaline) Only half of them informed of the drug’s effects A disguised member of the research team acted either
euphoric (happy) or angry Schacter & Singer
Experiment The informed group attributed the
physiological reaction to the
epinephrine (adrenaline) However, in the ABSENCE of
information, participants ascribed the
physiological reaction to the situation This suggests a cognitive role in
emotion. Theories of Emotion Two-Factor Theory
• The cognitive interpretation, or appraisal, of a body reaction drives the subjective
experience of emotion Theories of Emotion Cognitive Appraisal Theory
• The personal meaning of a cognitive interpretation leads to a simultaneous
experience of physiological arousal and
emotion. Arousal and Emotional Experience Emotions lead to physiological arousal, which
impacts task performance both positively and
negatively. Application: Anxiety & Sexual
Attraction Hypothesis: Anxiety could be
interpreted as sexual attraction
given certain environmental cues
• Studied only men
• Interviewed by either male or female interviewers
• Participants would cross the bridge
& then answer a series of questions
They would also see a picture of a
young woman covering her face with
• Interviewer would give them their
phone number Application: Anxiety & Sexual
Attraction Method, Cont.:
• IV: Large Bridge or Small Bridge
• DV: Level of Sexual Arousal: Measured by writing a brief dramatic story based on a neutral picture of
woman with one hand over her face, and the
other hand stretched out Application: Anxiety and Sexual
• More sexual content in stories of experimental group
• Experimental group twice as likely to call the
interviewer when the interviewer was a woman ...
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- Fall '09
- heart rate, biological needs
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