Chapter 1(Nature of Development)3 domains of development: physical, cognitive, psychosocial/socioemotional (p. 4, p. 10-1, 12 & lecture). Three Domains of DevelopmentPhysical/biological–Includes changes in the body (brain, sense, organs, muscles, bones, etc.) and in the ways a person uses his or her body (motor skills)–Also includes the effects of aging (eyesight, muscle strength, etc)–Genes/environment, prenatal, physical self, perception, sexuality, deathCognitive–Involves gains, declines, and changes in reasoning and thinking, language acquisition, and the ways individuals gain store and remember or recall knowledge of their environments. Involves learning and forgetting–Cognitive/Piaget, learning and memory, intelligence, language and achievementSocioemotional/psychosocial–Concerns changes in feelings or emotions as well as changes in how individuals relate to other people. It includes relationships withfamily, peers, and coworkers, as well as an individual’s personal identity, or sense of self.–Personality (the big 5), gender, social, social cognition, and moral attachment, family–How does your textbook define development (p. 3-4) and what is the life-span perspective?Development:the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life spanLife span perspective:the belief that development occurs through life; views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, ans as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss–How does this relate to Stability vs. Change? –Know lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plasticity & multidisciplinary (p. 4).Lifelong: no age period dominates developmentMultidimensional:at every age, your body, your mind, your emotions and relationships change and affect each other. Development has biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions. Multidirectional:throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink. For example, when one language is acquired early in development, the capacity for acquiring second and third languages decreases later in development.Plasticity:the capacity for change. Multidisciplinary:How do your hereditary and health limit your intelligence? Do intelligence and social relationships change with age in the same way around the world? Ho do families and schools influence intellectual development?–Growth, maintenance & regulation of loss (p. 6).
Baltes and his colleagues (2006) assert that achieving mastery of life often involves conflicts and competition among three goals of human development: growth, maintenance & regulation of loss. As individuals age into middle and late adulthood, the maintenance and regulation of loss in their capacitiesshift their attention away from growth. Thus, a 75 year old man might aim to not improve his memory orhis golf swing but to maintain his independence and merely continue playing golf.