100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 3 pages.
Name:Rae Anne KinnunenLab Partner:Danni S.Lab Section:C127, Monday, 4:45 PMAI: Emily ReidyDate:01/30/17Synthesis of SoapObjectiveThe goals of this experiment included understanding the functional groups and chemistry of soap as well as to understand how soap is synthesized to measure the heat of fusion of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate. Those goals then lead into the overarching goal of understanding how soap works and the effects of salt on soap.IntroductionSoaps typically consist of sodium or potassium salts of carboxylic acids in which contain a long hydrogen chain that allows soap to work effectively. Soap removes substances that are nonpolar, for example grease, which water by itself cannot dissolve. A solvent only dissolves in a solute with a similar polarity. Soap is effective because it has both a polar and a nonpolar end to take care of things like dirt and grease simultaneously. The nonpolar end is a long hydrocarbon chain and the polar end is a carboxylion. Even though soap contains a nonpolar hydrogen chain, it dissolves in water due to the formation of micelles. Micelles are holes of fatty acid anions with a hydrocarbon tail and a carboxyl tail (Synthesis of Soap). Micelles dissolve grease and oils in the nonpolar interior and suspends it in water that is then washed away (Synthesis of Soap). Soap is less efficient in hard water because it creates soap scum. To avoid the soap scum soft water is made through the removal of anions. ProcedureA 150mL beaker, medicine dropper and standard scale are used to measure 10g of corn oil. Meanwhile, an 80mL of 50:50 solution of 20mL of 95% ethanol and 20mL of distilled water is measured in a 100mL graduated cylinder. A second solution of hydroxide is made by measuring 20mL of distilled water and 50mL of 95% ethanol in a 50mL graduated cylinder and added to a 500mL beaker containing five grams of hydroxide pellets. A third solution is made of 50g of powder sodium chloride combined with 150mL of distilled water measured in a 100mL graduated cylinder then both are mixed together in a400mL beaker until the sodium chloride is dissolved. The sodium hydroxide solution is then poured into