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Fekih 1 Kais Fekih Professor Lara Medina Course: Chicanos 445 Date: 20/01/2017 History Of Chicanos In The United States Chicano or Chicana is a recognized identity of some Mexican American based in the United States. According to analysts, a significant number of Mexican American have used the name Chicano as a description of the people of Mexican origin living in America. The individuals have played significant roles to the advancement of California. For instance, the polarization of class and widening of race resulted in a new set of ethnic groups. In addition, social movements emerged providing a good platform for change. Between the years 1850 and 1930, demographic disruption in the United States led to a re-organization of the social order. Consequently, all the recognized social racial groups such as the whites, Indians, Asians, and Americans were affected. In the 19thand 20thcentury, a large number of immigrants moved to the United States to find economic opportunities and to escape the negative living conditions in their home countries. 1700s-1900 (Period of Colonization and Exclusion) In the course of 17thcentury, the indigenous population of Mexico declined resulting in conflicts over ministries and ruling of indigenous people. On the contrary, the emerging class of Spaniards in New Spain began to formulate a unique identity with efforts to control economic activities in the society. In the 18thCentury, the Bourbon reforms resulted in profound changes in Mexico. The Mexicans had settled in California since the 1700’s and were sparsely settled on the ranchos.
Fekih 2 During the colonial era, America as a nation experienced tremendous immigrations between the 17thand 19thcentury. For instance, many immigrants moved to America in search of economic opportunities while others arrived as pilgrims and in search of religious autonomy. According to Gonzales (118), European workers faced a number of issues such as poor weather conditions, although the existing sugar companies advanced credit to the German speaking laborers to ensure that they did not lose their homes and land. On the other hand, a large number of slaves moved to America to offer cheap labour in agricultural farms owned by the whites (Latino Americans episode 1 n.d). In the year 1882, the government enacted a legislation to restrict the immigration of Chinese to America. In the year 1965, new laws were formulated ending the restrictions in favor of the European immigrants. The minority ideologues have increasingly used the term “colonialism” accounting to the situation in the United States. Many researchers have made significant attempts to relate the term colonialism with the political participation of the elites and mass levels. The delineated cultural areas included classic colonialism in New Mexico, conflict colonialism in Texas, and economic colonialism in California. The proportions of voluntary immigrants and the descendants in the charter members are some of the factors that distinguish between the three. In addition, the military ideology of Chicano makes attempt to transcend the differences in the three regions. It is