#8 - 1) Jewish Councils Structure 1. In each community a...

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1) Jewish Councils Structure 1. In each community a body representing the Jews will be formed. 2. This representation of the Jews, known as the Judenrat, will consist of 12 Jews in communities with up to 10,000 inhabitants, and in communities with more than 10,000 inhabitants, of 24 Jews, drawn from the locally resident population. The Judenrat will be elected by the Jews of the community. If a member of the Judenrat leaves, a new member is to be elected immediately. 3. The Judenrat will elect a chairman and a deputy from among its members. 4. 1) After these elections, which must be completed not later than December 31, 1939, the membership of the Judenrat is to be reported to the responsible sub-district Commander ( Kreishauptmann ), in urban districts to the City Commander ( Stadthauptmann ).2) The sub- district Commander (City Commander) will decide whether the Judenrat membership submitted to him should be approved. He may order changes in the membership. 5. It is the duty of the Judenrat through its chairman or his deputy to receive the orders of the German Administration. It is responsible for the conscientious carrying out of orders to their full extent. The directives it issues to carry out these German decrees must be obeyed by all Jews and Jewesses. 2) Jewish Councils Functions Jewish Council formed by Germans as a way to issue orders to Jews and administer Jewish affairs. Transferred from Germany method which worked well already in Germany. Appointing group of Jews respected by community or chosen haphazardly, elders, Rabbis, public figures who would be obeyed. Germans would give orders to head of council of council and council would be responsible for implementing German orders: very soon anger of population went against their own council. Anger went at council rather than Germans. These bodies were responsible for local government in the ghetto, and stood between the Nazis and the ghetto population. They were generally composed of leaders of the Jewish community (with the exception of in the Soviet Union, where Jewish organizations were eliminated in 1930s). They were forced by the Nazis to provide Jews for use as slave labor, and to assist in the deportation of Jews to extermination camps during the Holocaust. Those who refused to follow Nazi orders or were unable to cooperate fully were frequently rounded up and shot or deported to the extermination camps themselves.
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3) Similarities and Differences between various countries In west Europe Jews were ignorant. In E Europe they knew but were starved, were like zombies. Some went to Treblinka b/c offered bread and jam, even though all knew was trick.
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#8 - 1) Jewish Councils Structure 1. In each community a...

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