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Biology 427
Problem Set 4
Resources:
∑
Web link entitled "Beam Basics" on class syllabus shows various formulas for second
moment of area (I) for a variety of beam cross sections.
∑
Stress distribution (
s
) in a beam:
s
= M y / I
where
M
is the applied moment (
M
=
Fx
2
/2
L
at any point x along a uniformly loaded beam),
y
is the distance from the
neutral axis and I is the second moment of area.
∑
For a uniformly distributed load on a beam of constant crosssectional area,
the total
(maximum) applied moment is equivalent to the total force applied at the middle of
the beam length.
∑
Safety factor :
SF = breaking stress/predicted stress
_______________________________________________________________________
The wandering albatross is among the largest extant flying creatures.
With a wingspan of
nearly 2 m,
it is capable of flying for days on end and soaring in complex currents,
supporting its weight on outstretched wings.
While these animals show numerous
adaptations to flight, there are still some very severe limits to flight performance.
Among
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 Spring '08
 daniels
 Biology

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