Biology 427 Problem Set 4 Resources: ∑ Web link entitled "Beam Basics" on class syllabus shows various formulas for second moment of area (I) for a variety of beam cross sections. ∑ Stress distribution ( s ) in a beam: s = M y / I where M is the applied moment ( M = Fx 2 /2 L at any point x along a uniformly loaded beam), y is the distance from the neutral axis and I is the second moment of area. ∑ For a uniformly distributed load on a beam of constant cross-sectional area, the total (maximum) applied moment is equivalent to the total force applied at the middle of the beam length. ∑ Safety factor : SF = breaking stress/predicted stress _______________________________________________________________________ The wandering albatross is among the largest extant flying creatures. With a wingspan of nearly 2 m, it is capable of flying for days on end and soaring in complex currents, supporting its weight on outstretched wings. While these animals show numerous adaptations to flight, there are still some very severe limits to flight performance. Among
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