Zoology 427
Biomechanics
Problem Set 6.
Some basic relationships:
Assume induced grad is negligible for all that follows.
Lift = L = 0.5
ρ
S C
L
U
2
Drag = D = 0.5
ρ
S C
D
U
2
For gliders:
L = m g cos(
θ
)
D = m g sin(
θ
)
θ
= glide angle
Animal Data
(there are more data here than you need to solve the problems).
For wings and flukes (ignore effects of angle of attack).
C
L
= 1.0
C
D
= 0.3
Vultures
mass = 1 kg
span of wings = 2.0 m
Area of wings = 1.0 m
2
body drag coefficient = 0.3
body projected area = 0.2 m
2
Whales
mass = 1000 kg
span of fluke = 3.0 m
Area of fluke = 5.0 m
2
body drag coefficient = 0.5
body projected area = 5 m
2
fluke flapping frequency = f = 1 hz
fluke flapping amplitude = a = 1m
1. A sail plane pilot followed a vulture
travelling across the Kalahari desert. With no
noticable flapping, the bird was able to travel many kilometers by clever use of thermals
spaced throughout the desert. In this problem, we will use simple aerodynamics to
compute the average distance between thermals that would permit long distance
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 Spring '08
 daniels
 Zoology, Biomechanics, Force, Aerodynamics, vertical velocity, Lift, Drag equation, long distance migration

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