Chapter 34 - Chapter 34 notes Plant form and funcTon...

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Chapter 34 notes Plant form and function Concept Plant structure lays the foundation for plant function o By examining the themes, variations in plant form, plant tissue and their cells o For examining themes and variations in plant form, just take a closer look at the roots, shoots, and leaves o The themes and variations in plant form develop from primary growth (extends the plant body) and secondary growth (widens shoots and roots Introduction Plants make their own food through photosynthesis o Use this to build bodies that live for thousands of years Plants stay in place, extending their roots and shoots to harvest diffuse resources in cells and tissues The structure of the plant is dynamic because it exhibits indeterminate growth o Indeterminate growth: continue to grow throughout life Plant form Plants use light energy to synthesize carbohydrates from: o Carbon dioxide in the air o Water from the soil For plants to build and maintain cells they must obtain o Nitrogen o Potassium o Magnesium o Phosphorus o Other nutrients * Most of these key elements exists as ions dissolved in water found in soil * How is the plant body organized? There are two basic systems that pants use to acquire the resources they need for photosynthesis o Root system o Shoot system Root system (belowground): Anchors the plant and takes in water and nutrients from the soil o Deep roots allow absorption of water deeper into the groundwater Shoot system (aboveground): harvests light and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce sugars Both systems grow throughout life, allowing the plant to increase in size and acquire the nutrients, and reproduce Plant body: Shoot and Root systems connected by vascular tissue
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Importance of surface area and volume relationships Root and shoot systems both function in absorption o Roots: Absorb water and key nutrients o Shoots: absorb light Absorption takes place across a surface Cells that use absorbed light and molecules occupy a volume o A plant is efficient in absorption if it has a large surface area relative to its volume
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