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11 - BIO 320 Lecture 11 Gene function genetic...

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BIO 320: Lecture 11 Chapter 7: 7-21, 7-22, 7-24a, 7-25, 7-27, 7-28, 7-29, 7-31 QB: N1-23. Gene function, genetic complementation. The one gene/ one enzyme hypothesis 5' 3' 5' 3' gene A gene B DNA RNA protein enzyme A enzyme B The simplest version of this hypothesis predicts that there will be a different gene for every enzyme (protein). However, life is not this simple--for example: 1) One gene (transcription unit) may produce more than one protein. This can occur through differential processing at either the RNA or protein levels. (Two processes that depend on this are the generation of antibody diversity in humans, and the determination of sex in Drosophila ). 2) Duplicated genes may produce the same protein ( e.g. , histone genes are repeated in most eukaryotes). 3) Some enzymes are composed of multiple proteins (i.e. have more than one subunit). 4) Not all proteins are enzymes. 5) Some genes encode RNA molecules (e.g tRNA and rRNA) and not proteins.
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