13 - 2008 BIO 320 Lecture 13 Extrachromosomal Inheritance...

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BIO 320: Lecture 13 Extrachromosomal Inheritance Chapter 16: 16-13, 16-16, 16-17, 16-25, 16-28; QB: P1-8 Eukaryotic cells carry genes on chromosomes in organelles such as the mitochondria (used to generate ATP by respiration) and chloroplasts (used to generate sugar from sunlight). nucleus chromosome cytoplasm mitochondria mitochondrial chromosome The endosymbiont theory says that mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally derived from bacteria. This idea is based on the similarities between bacterial chromosomes and mitochondrial and chloroplast chromosomes. --circular --genetic code differs from nuclear encoded genes in the same way --protein translation machineries resemble each other Cells often have more than one mitochondrion or chloroplast How organellar chromosomes are inherited varies between organisms. In humans, a number of human diseases are associated with mutations in the nearly 17,000 bp mitochrondrial chromosome. These diseases all show maternal inheritance. Maternal inheritance:
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13 - 2008 BIO 320 Lecture 13 Extrachromosomal Inheritance...

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