Chapter 23- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 23 Milk and Milk Products...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 23: Milk and Milk Products • Consumption Trends – Increase in total milk consumption over the years – Increase in low- and non-fat milk – Increase in cheese consumption over the years • Composition and Properties of Milk – Whole cow’s milk (~ 88% water, 3.3 % protein, 3.3 % fat, 4.7% CHO, 0.7% ash) – Composition is depended on breed of cow, time of milking, feed consumed, environmental temperature, season, age and health of cow – Fat and protein vary most – Bovine somatotropin (bST), artificially synthesized (rbST) – pH 6.6 Protein • Casein (~80%) – alpha s1-, alpha s2-, beta-, kappa-casein – Kappa-casein (stabilizer in colloidal dispersions) – Micelles – Phosphoprotein – Calcium caseinate throughout milk serum – pH 4.6, casein precipitates – Rennet (chymosin a protease) • Whey protein (lactalbumin and lactoglobulin) – Not a single protein – Precipitated by heat – Whey protein concentrate (WPC) – can contain 35, 50, or 80% protein – Whey protein isolate (WPI) – greater than 90% protein – Beta-lactoglobulin (50% of total why protein), gelling properties Fat • Emulsion – visible under microscope • Milk fat globule membrane – Lipid-protein complex and some CHO – Lipids (phospholipids, triglycerides, and sterols) • Mainly triglycerides – Some phospholipids and sterols (cholesterol) – Saturated fatty acids (butyric and caproic acids) • Whole, nonhomogenized milk vs. homogenized milk • Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K • Fat-soluble carotenoid pigments • Milk fat fractionation – Crystallization – Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) Carbohydrate • Lactose (milk sugar)- least sweet and least soluble • Lactase – Lactose intolerance Color • White appearance – Casein micelles and calcium phosphate salts • Carotenes and riboflavin Flavor • Bland and slightly sweet • Mouthfeel • Aroma (acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, methyl ketones, short-chain fatty acids, lactones) • Heating – Ultrahigh temperature sterilized milk • Off-flavors – Cow feed, putrefactive bacteria, chemical changes, absorption of foreign flavors – Oxidized flavor – oxidation of phospholipids – Exposure to light Acidity • pH 6.6 • Exposure to air • Raw milk Nutritive Value • High quality protein • Rich in minerals (calcium) – Lactose – Good source of phosphorus – Poor in iron • Vitamins – Vitamin A and D – Fat-soluble vitamins – Thiamin (fair), riboflavin (great source) – Specially developed milk cartons – Vitamin C • Tryptophan – Precursor for niacin Sanitation and Milk Quality • One of the most perishable foods • Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (U.S. Public Health Service of Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (U....
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This note was uploaded on 06/04/2008 for the course DIETETICS FOS3026 taught by Professor Monaghan during the Spring '08 term at Tallahassee Community College.

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Chapter 23- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 23 Milk and Milk Products...

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