Chapter 23- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 23 Milk and Milk Products...

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Chapter 23: Milk and Milk  Products
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Consumption Trends Increase in total milk consumption over the years Increase  in low- and non-fat milk Increase in cheese consumption over the years Composition and Properties of Milk Whole cow’s milk (~ 88% water, 3.3 % protein, 3.3 % fat, 4.7% CHO,  0.7% ash) Composition is depended on breed of cow, time of milking, feed  consumed, environmental temperature, season, age and health of cow Fat and protein vary most Bovine somatotropin (bST), artificially synthesized (rbST) pH 6.6
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Protein Casein (~80%) alpha s1 -, alpha s2 -, beta-, kappa-casein Kappa-casein (stabilizer in colloidal dispersions) Micelles Phosphoprotein Calcium caseinate throughout milk serum pH 4.6, casein precipitates Rennet (chymosin a protease) Whey protein (lactalbumin and lactoglobulin) Not a single protein Precipitated by heat Whey protein concentrate (WPC) – can contain 35, 50, or 80% protein Whey protein isolate (WPI) – greater than 90% protein Beta-lactoglobulin (50% of total why protein), gelling properties
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Fat Emulsion  – visible under microscope Milk fat globule membrane Lipid-protein complex and some CHO Lipids (phospholipids, triglycerides, and sterols) Mainly triglycerides Some phospholipids and sterols (cholesterol) Saturated fatty acids (butyric and caproic acids) Whole, nonhomogenized milk vs. homogenized milk Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K Fat-soluble carotenoid pigments Milk fat fractionation Crystallization Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)
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Carbohydrate Lactose  (milk sugar)- least sweet and least soluble Lactase Lactose intolerance Color White appearance Casein micelles and calcium phosphate salts Carotenes and riboflavin Flavor Bland and slightly sweet Mouthfeel Aroma (acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, methyl ketones, short-chain fatty acids,  lactones) Heating Ultrahigh temperature sterilized milk Off-flavors Cow feed, putrefactive bacteria, chemical changes, absorption of foreign  flavors Oxidized flavor – oxidation of phospholipids Exposure to light
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Acidity pH 6.6 Exposure to air Raw milk Nutritive Value High quality protein Rich in minerals (calcium) Lactose Good source of phosphorus Poor in iron Vitamins Vitamin A and D Fat-soluble vitamins Thiamin (fair), riboflavin (great source) Specially developed milk cartons Vitamin C Tryptophan Precursor for niacin
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Sanitation and Milk Quality One of the most perishable foods Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (U.S. Public Health Service of  FDA)
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