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Test 2 Criminology

Test 2 Criminology - 4:14:00 PM Tuesday October 9...

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08/12/2007 17:14:00 Tuesday October 9, 2007 - Social Disorganization Theory 1920’s/ 1930’s Shaw and McKay, in Chicago o Chicago was rapidly growing with immigrants, Metropolitan expansion o Chicago is built on water o Identification and district parts of the city (zonal model) About 5 different zones Zone 1: CBD (Central Business District): banks, loading  docks, police departments, hospitals, etc. Not much  residential activity/settlement Zone 2: Zone in Transition: immigrants move to urban  areas because jobs are there. Inexpensive housing  (rental housing) it provides access to opportunities for  jobs in the CBD. Vertical mobility= moving up in  stratification. Highly correlated with geographic mobility,  moving out while moving up. Zone 3: Zone of working class homes: Move out of rental  home to a starter home. People make money and can  afford somewhere nicer to live. Tends to be more stable  in terms of communities controlling themselves. Zone 4: Residential Zone: Suburban, solid middle class. Zone 5: Commuter Zone: People who work in the city  commute from suburbs to the city. Crime is not equally distributed, this relates to Shaw/ McKay model (macro  level theory) Not concerned with individuals, but with communities Found that some neighborhoods, no matter the ethnic group that lived there  at the time, it had a high rate of crime- what explains this? o SES of the community: Poverty and things that come a long with being  poor, link is not as strong as people think it is. Economically motivated. o Racial or Ethnic differences: (heterogeneity) Neighborhoods tended to  be diverse. In the 90s there was a resurgence of this. Russian  neighborhoods, Polish neighborhoods. People have different ideas of  what’s acceptable behavior or not. Conflict of cultures, values, norms.  Also basic communication problems.
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o Population turnovers: people moving in, people moving out. Zone 2  has a high population turnover rate. These factors were driving crime rates according to Shaw and McKay o Informal social control capacity is weakened (undermined informal  social control) o Formal social control: police o Informal social control: norms and values we have as a society. 1989 Rob Sampson & Groves: wanted to look at informal social control o Friendship networks (lots of people know each other) o Low organizational participation: contributes to integration and  regulation: Kiwanis Club, Bible studies o Unsupervised peer groups: get involved in vandalism, selling drugs,  fighting, robbery Well integrated neighborhoods tend to do a better job of getting external help 
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