Chapter 25- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 25: Meat and Meat Cookery...

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Chapter 25: Meat and Meat  Cookery
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Meat:  cattle, swine, sheep, rabbit, venison, horse, dog, llama, camel, etc. Composition and Nutritive Value Fat is variable Hard vs. Soft fat Muscle 75% water and 20% protein Myosin and actin Excellent nutritional quality Gelatin Vitamins and Minerals Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin (lean meats) Lean pork (thiamin) Liver and kidney (riboflavin and niacin) Tryptophan (precursor for niacin) Liver (vitamin A) Iron, zinc, phosphorus, copper Pigments Myoglobin  (Age, species, different muscles)  oxymyoglobin    metmyoglobin Hemoglobin
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Structure of Meat Muscle Tissue Contracting and relaxing Muscle tissue Myofibrils  and  sarcoplasm Myosin  (thick filament) and  actin  (thin filament) Actomyosin Tubles  and  reticulum Mitochondria  and  adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Sacroclemma Major muscle names Ex: longissimus dorsi and psoas major or tenderloin (T-bone  steak)
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Structure of Meat Connective Tissue Binds muscle cells, makes up tendons and ligaments Ground substance Collagen  (white) Elastin  (yellow) Reticulin Muscle used for locomotion Moist heat (hydrolyzed collagen)
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Structure of Meat Fatty Tissue Under the skin and around glandular organs Deposited between muscle  Intramuscular distribution (marbling) Color and changes with age (carotenoid pigments) Bone Not edible, but important in determining cuts of meat Yellow marrow Spongy with red marrow
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Classification Beef Age and sex Steer Heifer Cow Stag Bull Veal Immature bovines < 3 weeks but > 20 weeks Diet Calf
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Classification Lamb and Mutton Lamb Yearling Mutton Mutton Break joint Color Pork Young animals (7-12 months) Older animals and sex differences
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Postmortem Changes and Aging Rigor mortis Lactic acid No oxygen Disappearance of ATP Actomyosin formation Effects of refrigeration Colder and warmer temperatures Species of animal, age, activity just before slaughter Larger vs. smaller animals Ripening or aging Mucoprotein Dry vs. wet aging Beef and sometimes lamb Typically, not with veal or pork
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Factors Affecting Tenderness Connective Tissue Amount Least used muscle (rib and loin section) Age of animal Fat and Marbling USDA quality grade standards (estimation of marbling) Ground beef  Other Factors Low-voltage electrical stimulation Hereditary background Feeding Size of muscle fibers Tenderloin and longissimus dorsi muscles in the rib and loin section Round and chuck sections
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This note was uploaded on 06/04/2008 for the course DIETETICS FOS3026 taught by Professor Monaghan during the Spring '08 term at Tallahassee Community College.

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Chapter 25- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 25: Meat and Meat Cookery...

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