Chapter 10- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 10: Fats, Frying, and...

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Chapter 10: Fats, Frying,  and Emulsions
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Fats Invisible fat vs. Visible fat Lipids in food: triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, and sterols  (Chapter 9) In food preparation:  triglycerides Provide flavor and mouthfeel Palatability “shorten” strands of gluten Aeration of batters and doughs Excellent medium for heat transfer Emulsions Energy for the body (nutrition)
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Fat Consumption and Nutritive Value Recommended  30% of total calories , with  no more than 10% from  saturated fat Low-fat alternatives Increase in fat consumption Decrease in saturated fat consumption, increase in MUFA and PUFA Essential fatty acids:  linoleic acid (omega-6 PUFA) Omega-3 fatty acids Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Fat-soluble vitamins
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Properties of Fats Solubility Insoluble in water Soluble in chloroform, ether, and petroleum ether Melting Point Relatively high melting point Fats:  solid at RT Oils:  liquid at RT Types of fatty acids they contain High saturated = higher melting points (usually solid at RT) High unsaturated = lower melting points (usually liquid at RT) High  P/S ratio  (corn, soybean, cottonseed, safflower oils) Trans vs. cis # of carbons
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Properties of Fats Plasticity Ability to be molded or shaped Contain both solid crystals and liquid oil  Flavor Used for seasoning Butter, bacon fat, olive oil, sesame seed oil
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Processing and Refining of Fats Hydrogenation Change from  liquid to solid Increase stability to oxidative changes and heat Hydrogen gas and nickel catalyst Change in # of double bonds Change in configuration Winterization cloudy ” appearance in refrigerator Salad dressing oils Temperature is lowered, oil is filtered
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Processing and Refining of Fats Churning Cream Rupture of protein film around fat globules Coalesce Butter (water –in-oil emulsion) Salt vs. unsalted butter Coloring agent: carotene USDA grade standards for butter: U.S. Grade AA and U.S. Grade A Have at least 80% milk fat by law Diacetyl
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Chapter 10- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 10: Fats, Frying, and...

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