Chapter 14- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 14: Pasta and Cereal...

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Chapter 14: Pasta and  Cereal Grains
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Cereals Most common : wheat, corn, rice, oats, rye, barley, and millet Less common : sorghum, triticale, buckwheat, amaranth Structure : bran coat, a germ, and the endosperm Bran 5% of kernel, high content of fiber and mineral ash Aleurone layer (8% of kernel) Endosperm 83% of kernel, high starch and protein content Germ 2-3% of kernel, rich in fat, protein, ash, and vitamins
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Nutritive Value and Enrichment Food staple Low in fat Excellent source of starch and indigestible fiber Low biological value proteins (many lack lysine) Refined flours (phitate binds to calcium and other vitamins, and they  can’t be absorbed) Enriched (fortified) flours Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron added In 1996, FDA mandated the addition of folic acid Optional: calcium and vitamin D Enriched flour vs. whole-grain flour
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Wheat Hard vs. Soft wheat Hard wheat: higher protein and greater baking strength Durum wheat Very hard, non-bread-making wheat, high protein Pasta products North Dakota Bulgar Parboiled and then dried Some bran removed, and kernel cracked Starch production Breakfast cereals
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Corn Staple food in  Mexico  and  Central America  (tacos, quesadillas, fajitas,  etc.) Grits, hominy, cornbread (southern United State) Dent (field) corn vs. Sweet corn Field corn harvested in the fall, dry and has a dent Hominy, hominy grits, cornmeal Corn tortillas Corn is steeped and cooked in alkali solution, washed and ground  ( masa ) Masa  is pressed fat and cooked on hot griddle Breakfast cereals Corn oil Corn syrup Ethanol Corn starch
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Chapter 14- FOS 3026 BB - Chapter 14: Pasta and Cereal...

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