Chapter 21 FOS - Chapter 21 Fruits and Fruit Preparation Definition of a Fruit • Produced from flowers and are the ripened ovaries and adjacent

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 21: Fruits and Fruit Preparation Definition of a Fruit • Produced from flowers and are the ripened ovaries and adjacent tissues of plants • Common characteristics in addition to the botanical similarity – Fleshy or pulpy • Simple (develop from a single ovary in one flower) – oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, apricots, cherries, peaches, plums, apples, pears • Aggregate (develop from several ovaries in one flower) – raspberries, strawberries, blackberries • Multiple (developed from a cluster of several flowers) - pineapple – Often juicy – Usually sweet – Fragrant, aromatic flavors Composition and Nutritive Value • High CHO (mainly as sugars) • Trace of fat (exceptions avocado and coconut) • Small amount of protein • High in water (averages ~85%) • Contain some refuse • Many vitamins and minerals – Vitamin C in citrus, strawberries, cantaloupe, guava, kiwi – Carotenoids (precursor of vitamin A) in pink grapefruit and yellow fruits – Iron in blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, dried apricots, prunes, dates, figs – Calcium in oranges, grapefruit and figs • Good amount of indigestible dietary fiber (higher when skin is consumed) • Phytochemicals (e.g. lycopene) • Juice is still the #1 form in which fruit is consumed Color • Same pigments as vegetables Predominant pigments • Carotenoids (yellow-orange) • Anthocyanins (red-blue) • Enzymatic oxidative discoloration is also present (bananas, apples, pears, peaches) • Refer to Chapter 20 to review these topics Flavor • Complex combination of flavor components – Tart, fragrant, sweet • Aromatic compounds- compounds with aroma or odor – Esters , such as methyl butyrate (pineapple) – Aldehydes , such as benzaldehyde derivatives (apricots) – Alcohols (apricots) – Apricots contain at least 32 identified aromas! – Loquat fruit has as many has 80 aromas! Flavor (cont’) • Organic Acids- free or combined (salts or esters) forms – Malic, citric, tartaric, benzoic , oxalic acids – One typically predominates, however mixtures can occur – Plums and cranberries (benzoic acid) – Rhubarb (oxalic acid) – Citrus (citric acid) • Essential Oils – Lemon and orange zest – Present in the leathery skin of the fruit • Sugars, some mineral salts, phenolic compounds (bitter, astringent, puckery) Changes During Ripening...
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This note was uploaded on 06/04/2008 for the course DIETETICS FOS3026 taught by Professor Monaghan during the Spring '08 term at Tallahassee Community College.

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Chapter 21 FOS - Chapter 21 Fruits and Fruit Preparation Definition of a Fruit • Produced from flowers and are the ripened ovaries and adjacent

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