IR_midterm_study_guide - IR 100 9:33:00 PM 3 phases of the...

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IR 100  21/10/2007 23:33:00 3 phases of the war of independence: 1) phase of revolt (destructive)- july 1776, destroy british control, results in  declaration of independence - General George Washington leads continental army - Battle of Lexington - British surrdender at Yorktown 1781 2) phase of the states (constructive)- summer 1787, results in constitutional  convention  -goals: setting up governments, reduce authority of elected governers,  separation of powers -articles of confederations become the constitution 3) Phase of Nation (debatable)- 1787, ratifying and implementing constitution 4 phases of WWI: 1) War of Illusions   - military theorists thought that offense would have advantage, but advances in  artillery gave defense the advantage, troops had to dig trenches in their own defense    - trench moved very slowly, lead to stalemate 2) Stalemate   -Early tanks made little difference (slightly more movement on eastern front,  compared to western)   - became a bloody stalemate in 1915 3) Slaughter    - live and dead in trenches, diseases from terrible conditions    - Deadly gas
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   - Trench fighting bloodbath   - over 20,000 die at Berdun 4) Revolution and Peace - Military dictatorship in germany, 1918 germany surrenders…people of germany  didn’t know why because the dictatorship made them believe they were winning - 1917- Russian revolution, rise of Lenin - US entry in war 4 phases of WWII: 1) Hitler’s war (1939-1940) – goal- expand military power and conquest      -1936- remilitarized Rhineland      -1938- annexed Austria (no resistance) - 1939- invaded Czechoslovakia -  1939- invaded Poland - 1940- conquered Low Countries and France 2) Churchill’s war (1940-1941) goal: survive long enough to convince US to enter  war - drew on all of his diplomatic skills, and that he was half American 3) Stalin’s war (1941-1944)- goals:   -survive betrayal by Nazi allies and invasion (operation barbarossa)  - Repel Germans from Soviet territory  - Convince brits and US leaders to open a second front in Europe  4) Roosevelt’s war (1941-1945)
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 -he merged two wars (allied land war in EU, solo naval war in Asia) into one - emerged victorious, leaving US stronger at the end than at the beginning -  had to move the nation into willingness to go to war American exceptionalism: During the Cold war, it was often cast by the mass  media of the American Way of Life, personifying liberty engaged in a battle with tyranny  as represented by communism - “city on a Hill” expression, model community for the rest of the world Bay of pigs (1961)- unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the gov. of Fidel 
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