BLB5S - Chemistry 101 Prof Jerry Keister Chapter 8 1...

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Chapter 8 1 Chemistry 101 Chemistry 101 Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 8 2 Thermochemistry Thermochemistry Chapter 5 Chapter 5
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Chapter 8 3 The Nature of Energy The Nature of Energy Kinetic and Potential Energy Kinetic and Potential Energy From Physics: Force is a push or pull on an object. Work is the product of force applied to an object over a distance: w = F × d Energy is the capacity to supply heat or do work. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion: 2 2 1 mv E k =
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Chapter 8 4 The Nature of Energy The Nature of Energy Kinetic and Potential Energy Kinetic and Potential Energy Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its position. Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy. Example: a ball of clay dropping off a building.
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Chapter 8 5 The Nature of Energy The Nature of Energy Energy Units Energy Units SI Unit for energy is the joule, J: We sometimes use the calorie instead of the joule: 1 cal = 4.184 J (exactly) A nutritional Calorie: 1 Cal = 1000 cal = 1 kcal ( 29 ( 29 J 1 s / m kg 1 m/s 1 kg 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 = = = = mv E k
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Chapter 8 6 Some definitions Some definitions System – the specific part of the universe which is the focus of the problem. Surroundings – the rest of the universe. Isolated system – one which cannot exchange matter or energy with the surroundings. Closed system – one which can exchange energy, but not matter, with the surroundings.
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Chapter 8 7 State Properties Volume V Pressure P Temperature T Energy E The state of a system specifies the values of all the macroscopic properties. State properties depend only upon the state the system is in and not on the path by which the state is achieved.
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Chapter 8 8 First Law of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics The total energy of the universe is constant. Or - Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. E sys + E sur = 0 E sys = q + w Δ means the difference between final and initial values (E final –E initial ) when a change occurs. q = heat gained from surroundings (+) or lost to surroundings (-). w = work done on the system by the surroundings (+) 2200 E sys is a state function; q and w are not state properties.
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Chapter 8 9 Expansion Work Expansion Work Work ( W ): Is the force ( F ) that produces the movement of an object, times the distance
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BLB5S - Chemistry 101 Prof Jerry Keister Chapter 8 1...

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