BLB7S - Chemistry 101 Prof. Jerry Keister Chapter 6 1...

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Chapter 6 1 Chemistry 101 Chemistry 101 Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 6 2 Periodic Properties of the Periodic Properties of the Elements Elements Chapter 7 Chapter 7
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Chapter 6 3 Types of Chemical Bonds Types of Chemical Bonds The properties of many materials can be understood in terms of their microscopic properties. Microscopic properties of molecules include: the connectivity between atoms and the 3D shape of the molecule. We consider three bonds within molecules (intramolecular force): ionic bond (electrostatic forces which hold ions together, e.g. NaCl); covalent bond (results from sharing electrons between atoms, e.g. Cl 2 ); metallic bonding (refers to metal nuclei floating in a sea of electrons, e.g. Na).
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Chapter 6 4 All chemical bonds are formed from a transfer of electrons between atoms. The electrons involved in bonding are called valence electrons . Valence electrons are found in the incomplete, outermost orbital of an atom.
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Chapter 6 5 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
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Chapter 6 6 Ions and Ionic Radii Ions and Ionic Radii Main–group metals donate electrons from the atoms highest–energy occupied atomic orbital. Main–group non–metals accept electrons into their lowest–energy unoccupied atomic orbital. Transition metals lose their valence–shell s– electrons before losing their d–electrons.
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Chapter 6 7 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Electron Configurations of Ions of the Main Electron Configurations of Ions of the Main Group Elements Group Elements These are derived from the electron configuration of elements with the required number of electrons added or removed from the most accessible orbital. Electron configuration of ions can predict stable ion formation: Mg: [Ne]3 s 2 Mg + : [Ne]3 s 1 not stable Mg 2+ : [Ne] stable Cl: [Ne]3 s 2 3 p 5 - 6
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Chapter 6 8 Common Charges of Ions Common Charges of Ions
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Chapter 6 9 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Metals Metals When metals are oxidized they tend to form characteristics cations. All group 1A metals form M + ions. All group 2A metals form M 2+ ions. Most transition metals have variable charges.
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Chapter 6 10 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
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Chapter 6 11 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Consider the reaction between sodium and chlorine: Na( s ) + ½Cl 2 ( g ) NaCl( s )
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12 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Na( s ) + ½Cl 2 ( g ) NaCl( s ) f = -410.9 kJ The reaction is violently exothermic (heat is released in the reaction). We infer that the NaCl is more stable than its constituent elements. Why? Na has lost an electron to become Na + and chlorine has gained the electron to become Cl - . Note: Na + has the same electron configuration as Ne (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) and Cl - has an Ar configuration (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 ) ) . That is, both Na
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BLB7S - Chemistry 101 Prof. Jerry Keister Chapter 6 1...

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