BLB11S - Chapter 11 1 Chemistry 101 Chemistry 101 Prof Jerry Keister Chapter 11 2 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces Liquids and Solids

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 1 Chemistry 101 Chemistry 101 Prof. Jerry Keister Chapter 11 2 Intermolecular Forces, Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Liquids, and Solids Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Chapter 11 3 A Molecular Comparison of Liquids A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids and Solids • Physical properties of substances understood in terms of kinetic molecular theory: – Gases are highly compressible, assume shape and volume of container: • Gas molecules are far apart and do not interact much with each other. – Liquids are almost incompressible, assume the shape but not the volume of container: • Liquids molecules are held closer together than gas molecules, but not so rigidly that the molecules cannot slide past each other. – Solids are incompressible and have a definite shape and volume: • Solid molecules are packed closely together. The molecules are so rigidly packed that they cannot easily slide past each other. Chapter 11 4 A Molecular Comparison of Liquids A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids and Solids Chapter 11 5 A Molecular Comparison of Liquids A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids and Solids • Converting a gas into a liquid or solid requires the molecules to get closer to each other: – cool or compress. • Converting a solid into a liquid or gas requires the molecules to move further apart: – heat or reduce pressure. • The forces holding solids and liquids together are called intermolecular forces. Chapter 11 6 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces • The covalent bond holding a molecule together is an intramolecular force. • The attraction between molecules is an intermolecular force. • Intermolecular forces are much weaker than intramolecular forces (e.g. 16 kJ/mol vs. 431 kJ/mol for HCl). • When a substance melts or boils the intermolecular forces are broken (not the covalent bonds). • When a substance condenses intermolecular forces are formed. Chapter 11 7 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces Chapter 11 8 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 01 01 • Polar covalent bonds form between atoms of different electronegativity . • Polar bonds can be represented as having a positive end and a negative end. This is described as a dipole . Chapter 11 9 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 02 02 • Dipole Moment ( µ ): The measure of net molecular polarity. µ = Q × r • Q = charge on either end of dipole and r = distance between charges • Dipole moments are expressed in debyes ( D ) where 1D = 3.336 x 10 –30 coulomb meters (C·m) in SI units. Chapter 11 10 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 03 03 • Polarity can be illustrated with an electrostatic potential map. These show electron–rich groups as red and electron–poor as blue–green. Chapter 11 11 Dipole Moments Dipole Moments 04 04 Chapter 11 12 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces 01 01 • The attractive forces between molecules and ions....
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This note was uploaded on 06/05/2008 for the course CHE 101 taught by Professor Churchhill during the Summer '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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BLB11S - Chapter 11 1 Chemistry 101 Chemistry 101 Prof Jerry Keister Chapter 11 2 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces Liquids and Solids

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