L13-Attention

L13-Attention - Sensory Processes & Perception PSY 343 Fall...

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    Sensory Processes & Perception PSY 343 Fall Session 2007 - Lecture 13 Attention Instructor:  Sean Green
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    Visual Attention  What is Attention? Goldstein’s Definition of Attention:   The process of seeking out and focusing on stimuli  that are of interest William James on attention (1890) “Taking possession… of one out of what seem  several simultaneously possible objects or trains  of thought” “Implies the withdrawal from some things in order  to deal effectively with others”  Not simply pointing your eyes toward  something Attention allows attended stimuli to have a  greater influence on perceptual process
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    Visual Attention  What is Attention? Selective attention    The process of  focusing on one thing  and ignoring others So what do we focus  on? Stimulus salience  –  salient stimuli have  properties that cause  them to stand out Saliency map
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    Visual Attention  How do we measure attention? Selective attention    The process of focusing  on one thing and  ignoring others So what do we focus  on? Scene schema  – a set  of knowledge about  what is contained in  (and important in) a  particular scene
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    Visual Attention  How do we measure attention? Measuring eye  movements   Saccades  – rapid  movements of our eyes Fixations  – pauses  between saccades  where we look at  something We can tell when and  where saccades and  fixations occur using  eye-tracking  equipment
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    Visual Attention  Effects of Attention When do we perceive a stimulus? Kinnebrook and the Greenwich  observatory Bissel’s “Personal Equation” We often perceive an attended stimuli  earlier than an unattended one Titchener proposed “prior entry” (1908) ‘‘The object of attention comes to  consciousness more quickly than the 
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    Visual Attention  Effects of Attention Many studies show that attending to an  object can cause you to detect it sooner Psychophysical studies of attention  often measure  reaction time Reaction time  – The time it takes to  indicate that you’ve detected a stimulus,  for instance, by pushing a button
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    Visual Attention  Effects of Attention Many studies show that attending to an object  can cause you to detect it sooner Example: Posner, Snyder & Davidson (1980) Flashed a light on one of four locations Start: a cue appears in the middle of the  display, indicating where the flash is likely to  occur, or a plus sign that gives no information 4
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    Visual Attention  Effects of Attention Many studies show that attending to an object  can cause you to detect it sooner
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This note was uploaded on 06/05/2008 for the course PSY 343 taught by Professor Green during the Fall '07 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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L13-Attention - Sensory Processes & Perception PSY 343 Fall...

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