Ling 4

Ling 4 - Africa: Hausa, Yoruba Swahili Asia: Thai,...

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Class 4 Thursday, April 10, 2008 9:35 AM Syntax : in the search of "Universal Grammar" --summary up til now Hierarchical structure Grammatical catagories Phrase structure grammar Phrase structure rules give us A way to define the notion grammatical A way to distinguish meaningfulness from grammaticality There isn't a dictionary of all sentences of a language cuz there are too many combos A grammar is finite the number o fpossible sentences is infinite Word substittutions Conjunction Recursion …and this …and this Recursion of S S--> NP VP NP-->
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Two major "ground plans in the organization of language Languages relying on word order to show function in a sentence SVO Pepole love freedom SOV People freedom love VSO Love people freedom Common orders SOV SVO VSO Uncommon orders VOS OSV OVS Subject usually comes before object/verb SVO typology Europe/Middle East: end, finnihs, greek, etc
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Unformatted text preview: Africa: Hausa, Yoruba Swahili Asia: Thai, Vietnamese Americas: Mayan, Guarani Rules for SVO sentence SOV typology Europe: Baque, Georgian, Turkish Farsi Africa: Amharic, Somali, Kanuri, Ijaw Asia/Pacific: Hindi, Tamil, Japanaese, Korean Americas: Navajo, Cherokee, Chibchan, Quechua VSO Europe: Welsh, (Classical) Arabic, Biblical Hebrew Afirca: Berber, Maasai, Turkana Asia: Tagalog, Maori, Hawaiian America: Garifuna, Zapotec VP "Head final S O V Head Initia SV O VSO Korean is a consistent head FINAL language Bole is consistent head INITIAL language But Tagalog VSO is not a fully ocnsistent head INITIAL language English SVO not fully consis head INITIAL language Free word order languages Europe: Russian Latin Africa: Sandawe Australia: Warlpiri...
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Ling 4 - Africa: Hausa, Yoruba Swahili Asia: Thai,...

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