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Second Exam Notes - Post-War Revolution In between great...

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7/31/07 Post-War Revolution In between great wars, rise of totalitarian, (immediately after WW1). Def: Total government, state has full authority. o To qualify as totalitarian must have five features: All legal authority vested in one individual; Hitler, Czars, etc. Single political party; everyone must be aligned with it. All power is vested in national government, not state or local. Government has legal power over the economy. No open market. Decides what produced and consumed, and for how much. Secret police. People must be watched, enforce norms of totalitarian society. Revolution in Russia starts before world war. o 1914, when Czar Nicholas II, starts war with inadequate equipment. o Russia very poor, very backward. 95% peasant in 1917. o March 1917, Riots occur in Russian 2 major cities (St. Petersburg, Moscow); revolution is reverse of what Marx predicts. o Russia is filled with revolutionaries despite being outlawed. Students, professors, all kinds. Ex: biggest group; anarchists pro abolish government and private property. Nihilists: Humans lack capacity to know truth due to self- perspective. Thus all social structures are false and must be destroyed. Mindless and violent. There were Marxist socialists, non Marxist socialists. Largest pro Marx: Mensheviks Large organized group: Bolsheviks, Marxist terrorists o Are atheists with revolution transferred beliefs o Dedicated to revolution o Small minority among communists, never get in power by popular election o Had great dedication, organization, and intelligence. Three big leaders among Bolsheviks (1917) o Founder and brains: Vladimir Lenin Had been outcast from Russia due to threat Very dangerous threat Is a self neo-Marxist Rewrote that working class is living off another working class. In colonies they are doing the hard work, and being mooched off of. o Joseph Stalin Physically and theoretically violent
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Exiled from Russia, hid out in remote area Known as Jesse James of Euros. Held up banks. o Leon Trotsky Marxist theory, rewrite of Marx. Living in NYC in slums in 1917 Military breaking down in Russian cold. In two major cities were bread shortages Nicholas II decides he most go to forefront to speak to soldiers. Midway is mobbed by own people. Abdicates to step down from thrown. Conforms to legal authority, The Duma (parliament). When he steps down, The Duma becomes the legislature. Hold elections and become a socialist government. Leader is Alexander Kerensky o Allows Romonavs to remain in Russia. Germans make deal with Lenin to go into Russia out of exile, with 5M in gold, Made peace with Germany to get eastern part of Poland, withdraw Russia from war, and to preach for the Bolsheviks. –almost 1918 o Promises soldiers can elect own officers o Factory workers can select their supervisors o
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