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Chapter 3 Notes - Chapter 3 Expansion Diversity The Rise of...

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Chapter 3: Expansion & Diversity: The Rise of Colonial America 1 I. The New England Way A. Plymouth established in 1620 by Separatist Puritans (Pilgrims) 1. A City upon a Hill A. 1628: Puritan merchants get charter to settle North of Plymouth 1. 1629: Mass. Bay Co. move gov’t to NE 2. self-governed B. 1629: 400 Puritans arrived in Salem, MA C. 1630: “great fleet” sent out 1. 11 ships and 700 passengers 2. under John Winthrop a. Delivered sermon “A Model of Christian Charity” b. believed settlers to build godly community: shame England to repenting D. June 1630: Great fleet arrive in Boston harbor 2. Settlers and Natives A. NE began with little Indian resistance 1. disease killed 90% of Coastal Indians (1616-18, again in 1633-34) 2. Pop. went from 20,000 in 1600 to a few dozen by mid-1630s B. 1640’s: Mass. Bay passed laws prohib. practice of own religion & encouraging conversion to Christianity 1. “Praying Towns”: reservations estab. by colonies C. Expansion in land aroused Indian resistance 1. Connecticut River Valley: 1633 resistance from Pequots 2. 1637: English gain support of Mohegan & Narragansett Indians a. Campaign against Pequot: set fire to village in Mystic, Connecticut 3. English settle new colonies in Connecticut & New Haven 3. Development of a Puritan Orthodoxy A. Mass. Puritans: non-separatists considered spiritual members of Church of Eng. 1. created self-governing congregations: ignored Anglican bishop authority 2. Reverend John Cotton shaped American congregationalism a. plan placed control of congregation on male saints 1. chose minister by majority vote; elected board of “elders” B. NE congregationalism fused separating & non-separating Puritanism 1. Separatist: only saints allowed to take communion & baptize children 2. Non-separatist: obliged all adults to attend service and to tithe C. Meetinghouse used for religious services & town business D. “New England Way” set higher standards for identifying the elect 1. Saints must correctly profess faith, repent of sins, free of scandal 2. In Mass., must provide “relation” of conversion before congregation a. English believed this unnecessary barrier: intimidate humble b. NE Way’s most vulnerable pt. & major cause of demise 3. no conversion without literacy a. 1647: Mass. Bay enact Old Deluder Act 1. towns 50+ households must appoint teacher 2. towns 100+ households must maintain grammar school 5. Founded Harvard College in 1636
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Chapter 3: Expansion & Diversity: The Rise of Colonial America 2 4. Dissenting Puritans A. Winthrop, Cotton, etc. reinforced social order & religious conformity B. 1 st to challenge NE Way: Roger Williams, arrived in 1631 1. one of most respected & pop. figures in Mass. 3. separation of church and state C. Puritans thought church must be free of state control & opposed theocracy D. Authorities declared William’s opinion subversive & banished him in 1635 E. Williams went south to Providence F. dissenters traveled & settled in Narragansett Bay 1. 1647: Providence & Narragansett Bay join to form RI colony a. RI only colony to practice religious tolerance G. Anne Hutchinson followed Cotton: saints must be free from interference by nonelect
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