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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5: The Road to Revolution 1744-1776 1 I. Imperial Warfare A. 1713-early 1740s: generation of peace B. 1740-1748: War of Austrian Succession C. 1758-1763: Seven Years' War D. Fused bonds between British & Anglo-Americans 1. planted seeds of misunderstanding, suspicion, & hostility 1. King George's War A. Few battles involved more than 600 men 1. most consisted of raids & counterattacks in Northeast a. civilians killed & captured B. 1745: 4000 NE'ers under William Pepperell of Maine assaulted French bastion of Louisbourg 1. obtained siege guns by storming enemy's outer batteries 2. shelled Louisbourg for 7 weeks 3. June 17, 1745: took fortress & 1500 prisoners (lost 167 troops) C. 1748: British & French signed Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1. exchanged Louisbourg for British outpost in India 2. A Fragile Peace A. King George's War failed to est. Britain or France as dominant power B. Ohio Valley conflict 1. region attracted refugee Indians 2. Indians increasingly irritated French by independence 3. French derided Indians as republicans for defiance of authority a. republicans sought to balance Eng & French C. After war, VA pressured Iroquois leaders into ceding land 1. colonies could build fortified trading post 2. Delawares & republican Indians began to fear that Eng were greater threat D. 1752: Ohio Valley subject of competing claims by VA, PA, France, & Iroquois E. 1754: Washington w/ 300 colonial militiamen & 100 British regulars 1. found French constructing Fort Duquesne 2. Built crude defensive position 60 mi southeast: Fort Necessity 3. July 4, 1754: Washington surrendered For Necessity F. 1754: Delegates from 7 colonies north of VA gathered in Albany, NY 1. showered Iroquois w/ 30 wagonloads of presents 2. endorsed proposal for Albany Plan of Union a. called for Grand Council representing all colonial assemblies 1. devise policies regarding military defense & Indian affairs b. crown-appointed president general as executive officer c. Albany Plan came to nothing 3. The Seven Years' War in America A. Washington's action at Fort Necessity created state of war in NA 1. nearly 8000 colonists enlisted during 1755 to attack French strongholds 2. Edward Braddock & 1000 regular troops arrived in NA to take Fort Duquesne B. Washington's failure in Ohio Valley & Braddock's arrogance lost all Indian supoprt 1. July 9, 1755: 850 French, Canadians, & Indians ambushed Braddock's force of 2200 a. Braddock's troops retreated Chapter 5: The Road to Revolution 1744-1776 2 b. 900 regular & provincial soldiers died c. only 23 died on French side C. 1755: 2000 NE'ers seized 2 French forts near Nova Scotia 1. Gov of NS ordered troops to drive 1000s of local French-Canadians from homes a. burned villages b. 5% of Canada's pop deported to British colonies 1. most moved on to Louisiana (became known as Cajuns) D. Anglo-Americans outnumbered French 20:1 1. 1756-57: French commander in chief, Louis Joseph Montcalm, maintained offensive1....
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