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Chapter 23 Notes - Defending America's World Role Wilson's...

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Defending America’s World Role Wilson’s call for war in 1917 Intensified US involvement in Asia and Latin America After Spanish-American War and occupation of Philippines The Roosevelt Corollary in Latin America and the Balance of Power in Asia Roosevelt believed US must strengthen its world role, protect US interests in Latin America, and preserve the balance of power in Asia Roosevelt wanted to intervene in Latin Amer. as “international policeman” even though they had no territorial ambitions Became known as Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine Original doctrine warned Europe against meddling in Latin America Roosevelt Corollary said that under certain circumstances the US could meddle 1900: 100K Russian troops occupied Chinese providence of Manchuria Russia sought to promotes commercial interests by building railroads Alarmed Japanese; Feb. 1904 launched surprise attack that destroyed Russian naval force (Russo-Japanese War) 1905: Peace conference Russia recognized Japan’s rule in Korea Curbing Japanese expansionism became America’s major objective in Asia Roosevelt received Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for his role in ending Russo-Japanese War Great White Fleet Show off American naval strength Roosevelt ordered 16 white battleships on “training operation” to Japan Dollar Diplomacy in China and Nicaragua William Howard Taft took office in 1909 His foreign policy focused on advancing US commercial interests (Dollar Diplomacy) Woodrow Wilson took office in 1913; Taft’s policy was shelved US held Nicaraguan capital from 1912 to 1933 (ex. Of Roosevelt Corollary) Wilson and Latin America Wilson sent marines to Haiti and DR Stayed until 1924 in DR & 1934 in Haiti Wilson refused to recognize Victoriana Huerta’s regime in Mexico Wilson withdrew forces from Mexico in 1917 b/c of edging war in Europe War In Europe August 1914: war burst upon Europe; America didn’t want a part of it The Coming of War 1882:Germany, Austria, & Italy signed mutual-defense treaty France signed military treaties w/ Russia (1894) and GB (1904) Serbians wanted cultural & political unification of Slavs (Pan-Slavism) Russia supported Pan-Slavic cause Austro-Hungarian Empire wanted to expand as Ottoman Empire receded Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina Aroused alarm in Russia and fury in Serbia Germany, under Kaiser Wilhelm II, wanted to expand also June 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28 Russia mobilized for war Germany declared war on Russia and Russia’s ally France GB declared war on Germany The American People’s Initial Responses Wilson immediately declared American neutrality
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Extensive economic ties w/ GB made it hard to stay neutral The Perils of Neutrality 1917: US gov’t went to war Nov 1914: GB declared North Sea a war zone and planted it w/ deadly explosive mines Feb. 1915: Berlin proclaimed the waters around the British Isles a war zone & warned off
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